Who discovered America ?


 

Subject: WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA?

Subject: WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA?

by Ricardo Palleres

What if Europe was really in darkness in comparison to the Far East and India that Columbus set sail to find? What if the popular idea that the Tibetans and the American Indians have much in common in terms of their spiritual culture is largely a result of another historical scenario? What if Hindus and Hopis, Advaitins and Aztecs, Tibetan monks and Mayans were part of one world culture — a spiritual one?

It very well may come to pass in the near future that those concerned with truth will wrestle primarily with history rather than science. The obvious reason for this is that, in the words of Dr. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, author ofTheology and the World’s Religious History, “Humanity is more important than things. The truth about humanity is of a higher order than the truth about things.”1

History tells an intriguing tale, one that ultimately may provide the greatest support for a spiritual worldview. But history has also been distorted. An example of this is the “common knowledge” that Columbus discovered America. Some say he didn’t, nor were any other Europeans the first to touch America’s shores. There is good reason to reexamine the history of the world and the Americas in particular. An unbiased look into the development of our planet’s civilizations may help to bring about a change in values, a shift from material values to spiritual ones.

What if Europe was really in darkness in comparison to the Far East and India that Columbus set sail to find? What if the popular idea that the Tibetans and the American Indians have much in common in terms of their spiritual culture is largely a result of another historical scenario? What if Hindus and Hopis, Advaitins and Aztecs, Tibetan monks and Mayans were part of one world culture — a spiritual one? Perhaps the development of Western civilization and the Protestant ethic, which many of the West are now coming to abhor, have gotten in the way of the spiritual development of humanity. Perhaps many technological developments, while making physical contact with other cultures more possible, have distanced us from one another in a deeper sense. Another historical scenario: The spiritually sophisticated Asians were the first to set foot on Western shores, and Asia, not Europe, was the seat of culture. The central focus of that culture was genuine spiritual development, not the mere shadow of the same in the form of the politically-motivated Pauline Christianity and later the Protestant ethic, which licensed humankind’s exploitation of nature.

This theory is found in the Vedic literature of India. The ancient Puranas(literally, histories) and the Mahabharata make mention of the Americas as lands rich with gold and silver. Argentina, which means ‘related to silver,’ is thought to have been named after Arjuna (of silver hue), one of the heroes of that great epic. India’s Puranic histories are, however, questionable to the rationalist. In the minds of the empiricists, they are more akin to myths. Yet myths have meaning, as the late Joseph Campbell has reminded us. ThePuranas downplay in particular the mere recording of mundane events. The Puranic view is that even if its histories are only myths (which is not necessarily the case), the lessons to be learned from them are infinitely more valuable than what can be learned from recording the coming and going of humanity. In their view, only those human events that serve to promote transcendental knowledge are worth recording. Although empiricists are justified in dismissing them from their viewpoint, the so-called myths and their followers are also justified in dismissing the empiricist’s insistence that empirical evidence is final.

Granted, India has shown some lacking in her ability to record her story. But that is due to her preoccupation with the transcendent, the suprahistorical, and not to any ineptitude on her part. According to Kana Mitra in her article “Theologizing Through History?” We [Hindus] tend to forget about history, and the de-emphasis of nama-rupa — name and form [due to transcendent preoccupation] — is one of the reasons for not putting down a name or date in many of our writings. Consequently present-day historians have a difficult time in determining the date and authorship of various works.”2

Fortunately, for dealing with the “I’ll only believe it if I can see it” mentality of the empiricist, there is considerable hard evidence and academic support for the Vedic theory that most people are unaware of. Unbiased consideration of this remarkable evidence may move modern-day rationalists to give serious thought to the more realistic spiritual outlook of “Only if you believe it can you see it.” After all, reality is a living thing and it may reserve the right not to show itself but to those to whom it so chooses. Otherwise, why are we in illusion, or in search of reality? If it is something we can attain by our own prowess, how did we get here (in doubt) in the first place?

The meeting (1519) of Hernan Cortes and the Aztec emperor Montezuma II is depicted in this 17th century Spanish painting. (British Embassy, Mexico City). Unfortunately, the American Indians did not survive their cultural exchange with Europe. The Europeans, through book burning and bayonet, successfully “converted” them leaving very little trace of their noble civilization.

Many historians have scrutinized historical evidence to find more insight into the marvelous cultures that populated the American continent before Christopher Columbus was born. Their thirst for research was based on the assumption that the great Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations could not have appeared all of a sudden in the Western world. Rather, they must have received strong influence from ancient Eastern cultures, mainly from India.

Alexander von Humbolt (1769-1859), an eminent European scholar and anthropologist, was one of the first to postulate the Asiatic origin of the Indian civilizations of the Americas. His and other scholars’ views formed the basis for the “diffusionist” argument, which was opposed by the “isolationist” viewpoint. Diffusionists believe that the world’s civilizations are a result of social contact (civilized man meets uncivilized man). Isolationists believe that civilizations cropped up all over the earth without physical contact with one another.

The Aztec Calendar is known as the Aztec Chakra to Hindu Astronomers. (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico.)

“The doctrine of the world’s ages (Hindu Yugas) was imported into Pre-Columbian America… The Mexican sequence is identical with the Hindus… The essential fact remains that they were derived from a common source… It would be ridiculous to assert that such a strange doctrine was of spontaneous origin in different parts of old and new worlds.” — Mackenzie, Myths of Pre-Columbian America.

It is readily accepted that some twenty thousand years ago primitive Asians crossed the Bering Strait into North America and gradually moved south all the way to Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Diffusionists maintained that after this occurred civilized Asiatic people distributed themselves via the Pacific, thereby bringing civilization to the Americas. Isolationists insisted that after the nomadic tribes crossed the Bering Strait, a homogeneous race of “Indians of the Americas” was formed, and the American tribespeople then went about reinventing all culture, duplicating in two thousand years what originally took about six millenniums in the Old World.

Henry Charlton Bastian, author of The Evolution of Life (1907), presented the concept of physicochemical evolution, which gave strength to the isolationists. His theory advocated that the development of civilized man was a result of “a psychic unity of mankind,” rather than social contact. Bastian’s theory of elementargedanke influenced many anthropologists, and today, although the theory is not accepted, it is tacitly acknowledged as far as the conformities between America and Old World civilizations are concerned.3

This pseudo-evolutionist theory leaves much to be desired, and its unspoken acceptance casts doubt on the credibility of the anthropologists. After all, doesn’t it tax our credulity when we are asked to believe that a whole series of complicated techniques like casting by the lost wax method, the alloying of copper and tin, the coloring of gold by chemical processes, weaving, and tie-dyeing and batik were by some miracle invented twice, once in the Old World and again from scratch in the Americas? What mysterious psychological law would have caused Asians and Americans to both use the umbrella as a sign of royalty, to invent the same games, imagine similar cosmologies, and attribute the same colors to the different directions?

No archeologist today would attribute to prehistoric Europeans the independent invention of bronze casting, iron work, the wheel, weaving, pottery, writing, and so many other cultural elements that were derived from the Middle East. Similarly, the industrial developments in Britain were introduced from elsewhere within the European continent, not developed independently. What then would cause one to insist that what was not possible for the Europeans (duplicating culture independently) was possible for the American Indians? Especially when at the same time we are taught that the Europeans were of superior stock!

It was in 1949 that these opposing views met head-on at the Congress of the Americanists held in New York, which was sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History. At that time, the diffusionists presented an overwhelming mass of Asiatic-Pacific-American parallels. Nonetheless, much of the diffusionists’ evidence continues to be ignored, and the isolationist view is more widely accepted. The reason for this may be more than empirical evidence or lack of the same. Indeed, it may be the faulty nature of the empirical approach, which depends on one’s imperfect senses and causes one to dismiss facts that do not conform with the prevailing worldview.

The Aryan civilization of India is a logical choice for the beginning of the diffusion of our planet’s civilization. American historian Will Durant, in his book Our Oriental Heritage, described India as the most ancient civilization on earth, and he offered many examples of Indian culture throughout the world. He demonstrated that as early as the ninth century b.c.e. Indians were exploring the sea routes, reaching out and extending their cultural influence to Mesapotamia, Arabia, and Egypt.

“Europe, after Guttenburg’s invention of the printing press, wasted no time in announcing the discovery of the New World. It was at this time that European historians began to present to the rest of the world that their land was the center of culture and civilization.”

Although modern-day historians and anthropologists might prefer to accept Egypt or Babylon as the most ancient civilization, due to various archeological findings, their theories are by no means conclusive. The popular theory in the academic community that the Aryans were an Indo-European stock, who spoke an unknown pre-Sanskrit language and only later invaded India subsequently occupying her, is also considerably lacking in supportive evidence. Indeed, there is very little evidence whatsoever for the postulated Aryan invasion of India. But perhaps it is easier for modern people to accept ancient Egypt and Babylon, whose ancient civilizations have no living representation and thereby do not pose any challenge to the status quo.

But India is alive and kicking. Prominent traces of ancient Vedic civilization can still be found today not only in India but outside her borders as well. The life science of ayurveda, yoga and meditation, and Sanskrit texts translated into modern languages are all prominent examples. If we recognize ancient India as a civilized spiritual giant, we will have to reckon with her modern-day representations. It is altogether possible that the Vedic theory, if thoroughly researched, poses a threat to many of the concepts of modern civilization and the current worldview, as can be seen by the fact that the Vedic literature and spiritual ideology loomed as the greatest threat to the British in their imperialistic conquest of India.

The Aryans’ footprints are found throughout neighboring Southeast Asia. They were skilled navigators and pioneers of many cultural developments. According to several sources, these Aryans ruled in Java, Bali, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Annan, Burma, and Thailand until the fourteenth century. Even today, the kings of Thailand bear the title Ramaafter the Indian Ramraja (the perfect kingdom said to have been governed by the incarnation of Godhead Ramachandra). And the story of Ramayana is depicted on the palace walls in Bangkok.

Cambodia, the ancient Kamboja, boasts the largest temple complex in the world, named Ankor, from the Sanskrit language meaning “the capital city.” It was built in the ninth century c.e. in honor of the Hindu god Vishnu. The complex extends over an area more than twice the size of Manhattan and took thirty-seven years to complete. Its physical and spiritual grandeur is found elsewhere only in ancient Greece, Egypt, and among the Mayan and Aztec civilizations. Cambodia’s principle river is today called Me Kong, which some scholars say is derived from India’s Ma Ganga (Mother Ganges).

Vietnam, once called Champa, figures prominently as a stepping-stone in the story of India’s cultural expansion to the Americas. Furthermore, the Hindu state of Java was founded by the king of Kalinga (Orissa) in the first century c.e. Java is said to be the ancient Yava-Dveepa mentioned in the Ramayanaand other Sanskrit texts. The Indonesian national flag flies the symbol of Garuda, the bird carrier of Vishnu. Garuda is also the national symbol of that country.

In 1949, two scholars, Gordon Ekholm and Chaman Lal, systematically compared the Mayan, Aztec, Incan, and North American Indian civilizations with the Hindu-oriented countries of Southeast Asia and with India herself. According to them, the emigrant cultures of India took with them India’s system of time measurement, local gods, and customs. Ekholm and Lal found signs of Aryan civilization throughout the Americas in art (lotus flowers with knotted stems and half-dragon/half-fish motifs found commonly in paintings and carvings), architecture, calendars, astronomy, religious symbols, and even games such as our Parcheesi and Mexican patolli, which have their origins in India’s pachisi.

Both the Hindus and the Americans used similar items in their worship rituals. They both maintained the concept of four yuga cycles, or cosmological seasons, extending over thousands of years, and conceived of twelve constellations with reference to the Sun as indicated by the Incan sun calendar. Royal insignias, systems of government, and practice of religious dance and temple worship all showed remarkable similarities, pointing strongly to the idea that the Americas were strongly influenced by the Aryans.

The temples of India (pict. 1-2) are built according to the ancient Vedic architectural science. There are striking similarities between Mayan temples and those in India. Pict. 3-4: Two Mayan temples from Palenque, Mexico and Central America.

Another scholar, Ramon Mena, author of Mexican Archeology, called the Nahuatl, Zapoteca, and Mayan languages “of Hindu origin.” He went on to say, “A deep mystery enfolds the tribes that inhabited the state of Chiapas in the district named Palenque. . . . Their writing, and the anthropological type, as well as their personal adornments . . . their system and style of construction clearly indicate the remotest antiquity. . . . [they] all speak of India and the Orient.”4 Still another scholar, Ambassador Poindexter, in his two-volume 1930s treatise The Arya-Incas, called the Mayan civilization “unquestionably Hindu.”      

The Aztec culture in particular shows a striking resemblance to that of India. Aztecs divided their society into four divisions of both labor and spiritual status, as did the Hindus. In India, this system of government was known asvarnashrama, or the division of society based on body types and mental dispositions resulting from past karma. As in Indian civilization, the Aztecs maintained a God-centered government in which people were employed in accordance with their natural karmic tendencies. The results of the labor of all the priests, administrators, mercantilists, and laborers were for the glorification of Godhead, who in turn was thought to provide for humankind.

Aztec boys were sent to school at the age of five, at which time they were put under the care of a priest and trained in various duties of temple life. The Aztec system of education bears a striking resemblance to the Indian system of gurukula, in which boys were sent to the care of a guru for spiritual and practical education. The Mayans and Incas had a similar approach to education, which was mainly a training for priestly service. Fanny Bandelier’s translation of Sahagun’s History of Ancient Mexico describes that the intellectually inclined boys were trained as “ministers to the idols.”

Girls were educated in the domestic arts at home and did not mingle with young boys. Even as late as the 1930s, there was no courtship between Mexican Indian girls and boys, as is still the case in village life in India today. From conception to education, marriage, death, cremation, and even the observance of the sati rite, there are overwhelming parallels between Indian society and the Americas. Further evidence of cultural ties between the East and West is found in the statues of American gods who show a striking resemblance to the Hindu deities of Hanuman, Shiva, Indra, Vishnu and others. Such statues have been found throughout the Americas, and many of them can be seen today in museums in Central America.

The Mexican Indians and the Incas of Peru were primarily vegetarians. They were of high moral character and hospitable and generous as a habit. They practiced astrology, and mental telepathy was common among them. It was perhaps their peace-loving disposition that, like the Hindus, allowed them to be ruled by Europeans. Unfortunately, the American Indians did not survive their cultural exchange with Europe. The Europeans, through book burning and bayonet, successfully “converted” them, leaving very little trace of their noble civilization.

And what about Europe? When merchants sailing from India brought delicious spices, aromatic perfumes, incense, fine silk, precious stones set in delicate and rare jewelry, complex craftsmanship of ivory, and many other goods never seen before by Europeans, the riches and mystique of that land captivated them. The stories told by many navigators about that land of wonder, where the palaces were built of varieties of marble rather than rush stone, decorated with beautiful sculptures and wooden inlay, made the Queen of Spain so covetous that she provided Christopher Columbus with all necessities for his famous journey. Columbus had heard of India’s riches through the writings of Marco Polo. Polo had written that India “was the richest and noblest country of the world.”5

Europe, after Guttenburg’s invention of the printing press, wasted no time in announcing the discovery of the New World. It was at this time that European historians began to present to the rest of the world that their land was the center of culture and civilization. In comparison to Indian society, however, the Europeans were rather crude. The ominous age of the Inquisition, with its persecution and fanaticism, the use of mechanical devices to insure the “chastity” of its women, the exploitation of the serfs, and self-destructive habits, such as indiscriminate eating and alcoholism within the higher classes, are all evidence of this. The original Palace of Versailles in Paris, although certainly a unique architectural creation requiring genius, was built without a single bathroom. Louis XIV and his court are said to have evacuated behind curtains, cleaning themselves with the same. The king was in the habit of substituting soap with Indian perfume and waited until his thirty-fifth birthday before he took his first complete bath.

When Europe was still uncivilized, Indian culture, as well as American culture, was highly advanced. When Europeans were still cave dwellers and nomads wandering from place to place subsisting through hunting, some American peoples were plowing fields and baking bread and dressing in cotton, the seeds for which came from India. The subtlety of Indian society, both eastern and western, marks its superiority to Europe. It was a subtlety of spiritual outlook that Europeans failed to appreciate.

The Dresden Codex, one of the few Mayan hieroglyphic manuscripts that survived the book-burnings by Spanish invaders, documents astronomical calculations of the planed Venus. Large numbers of codices were compiled by the Mayan priests to record religious rites and astronomical facts. (Sachsische Landesbibliothek, Dresden, East Germany.)

The industrial revolution of Europe was prompted by India’s cotton, which competed with European wool. Later when the popularity of cotton products imported from India increased, the Europeans began to manufacture cotton in mills. Thus it was even an Indian resource that prompted Europe’s claim to fame — the beginning of modern technology.

It is altogether possible that the Vedic theory, if thoroughly researched, poses a threat to many of the concepts of modern civilization and the current worldview.

Several ancient cultures of the Americas were more spiritually attuned than the Europeans. They also lived with great regard for nature. Many people today are searching out the spirituality of the Americas, a spirituality that was lacking in Europe and is now lacking throughout the world. The Christ’s teachings were most certainly tainted with misunderstanding of that great savior’s message of love. And he too is said to have been influenced by India’s spirituality. His appearance in the world for that matter is mentioned in India’s Bavishya Purana long before the virgin birth took place.

The theory that India, Mother India, is the earthly source of spirituality can be to some extent supported by the fact that India is still today the most religious country in the world, with a theology that dates back to antiquity. The idea that she is the source of civilization as well, although supporting evidence is available, will ultimately require that modern man reevaluate what constitutes civilization before it gains wider acceptance.

 

Notes

1. Wilfred Cantwell Smith,”Theology of the World’s Religious History,” Toward a Universal Theology of Religion, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, N.Y. (1987) p.69.

2. Kana Mitra, “Theologizing Through History?” Toward a Universal Theology of Religion, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, N.Y. (1987), p.82.

3. Dr. Robert Heine Geldern, “Challenge to Isolationists,” Hindu America,Chaman Lal, Zodiac Press, New Delhi, (1940) Introduction p.vii.

4. Ibid., p. 14.    

5. Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo (The Venitian), revised from Marsden’s translation and edited with introduction by Manuel Komroff, Livright Pub, (1956) p.201.

 

Further References

William Mccgillivray, The Travells and Research of Alexander von Humbolt,Harper Bros. N.Y. (1872).

Henry Charles Bastian, The Evolution of Life. E.P. Dutton & Co. N.Y. (1907).

Gordon Ekholm, Excavations At Sinaloa, American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. (1942).

Gordon Ekholm, Excavations at Lampico and Panuco in the Hausteca,American Museum of Natural History N.Y. (1944).

Reprinted from Clarion Call Magazine (1988) with permission.

 

Happy Ganesh Chaturthi


 

ஓம் சுக்லாம் பரதரம் விஷ்ணும் ஸஸிவர்ணம் சதுர்புஜம்
ப்ரசன்னவதனம் த்யாயேத் ஸர்வ விக்னோப சாந்தயே
ஓம் கஜானனம் புத கணாதி ஸேவிதம்
கபித்தஜம்பு பலஸார பக்ஷிதம்
உமாசுதம் சோக விநாச காரணம்
நமாமி விக்னேஸ்வர பாதபங்கஜம்
 சோடச கணபதி மந்திரம்.
1) ஓம் ஸூமுகாய நமஹ
2) ஓம் ஏகதந்தாய நமஹ
3) ஓம் கபிலாய நமஹ
4) ஓம் கஜகர்ணகாய நமஹ
5) ஓம் லம்போதராய நமஹ
6) ஓம் விகடாய நமஹ
7) ஓம் விக்னராஜாய நமஹ
8) ஓம் தூம்ரகேதுவே நமஹ
9) ஓம் கணாத்யக்ஷாய நமஹ
10 ஓம் பால சந்த்ராய நமஹ
11 ஓம் கஜானனாய நமஹ
12 ஓம் வக்ரதுண்டாய நமஹ
13 ஓம் சுர்ப்பகர்ணாய நமஹ
14 ஓம் ஹேரம்பாய நமஹ
15 ஓம் ஸ்கந்த புர்வஜாய நமஹ
16 ஓம் ஸ்ரீமஹாகணபதியே நமஹ
With  Regards
 
May Lord Ganesha bless u and ur family  with Success, Happiness and  Prosperity  upon  You and  your family 
 
 
 

 Happy GANESH-CHATURTHI
 
 
Py Ganesh Chaturthi

Laffee Art


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Amazing Indian Street Paintings


 

Amazing Indian Street Paintings

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net
Snarling tigers, statuesque dancers, cricket superstars, even a mural from Conan the Barbarian These are not ordinary pictures; they are street-side murals in Indian cities.

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net

 

Interesting facts on Indian Mythology


INTERESTING INFORMATION ON THE CHARACTERS IN HINDU MYTHOLOGIES
Mandavi and Shrutkirti, the wives of Bharata and Shatrughana
respectively where the daughters of Kushadbhoja,the brother of King
Janaka.
Demons Madhu & Kaitabha who were killed by Lord Vishnu at the
creation of the world were born as Atikaya & Trishara, as sons of
Ravana & Dhanyamalini.
Jambavantha,who is believed to live from Sat Yug to Dwapara Yug is
considered as the King of bears & the 1st son of Brahma before humans
were created.
Jambavati, one of the chief wives of Krishna was daughter of
Jambavantha, with whom lord Krishna had duel for the gem
Syamantaka known as Kohinoor.
King of Nagas- “Shesha” the incarnation of supreme God Sankarshan
is said to hold all planets on his hoods & constantly sing the glories of
Vishnu.
Hanumana was son of Kesari, s/o Brihaspati & Anjana a celestial
apsara born on earth as female Vanara due to curse.
Hanumana had a duel with his own son Makardhwaj while he reached
ether to rescue Rama & Lakshmana who had been kidnapped by
Ravana’s associates.
Goddess Saraswati is shown holding Book, Rosary, Pot of scared water
& Vina depicting knowledge, spirituality, purification & Art
respectively.
Manthara, cursed Indera, the king of gods that he would not be
worshipped, as he prompted her to instigate kaikeyi for the exile of
Rama.
Pavak, Pavamana & Shuchi, the three sons of Swaha, the daughter of
Daksha who was married to Agni consume all the oblations offered to
fire of Yagna.
Atri proclaimed the theory of 3 strands that represent creation-
Brahma-“A”, sustenance-Vishnu-“U” & destruction-Shiva-“M” ie
“AUM” of the sacred thread Janeu.
Durga-beyond reach, Bhadrakali- power of time,Lalita-playful, Chandiviolent,
Annapurna- food giver, Amba- the mother & Bhairavi-fearful
are forms of Parvati.
1st form of Maa Durga- “Shailputri” worshipped on the first Navratra
mounts on the bull holding a lance in the right hand & a lotus in the left
hand.
Brahmacharini the 2nd form of Maa Durga-known as Aparna holds a
rosary & Kamandalu in her right & left hand & blesses unending
benefits of restraint.
“Chandraghanta” third facet of Durga has 10 hands, 3 eyes & bell
typed half moon on her forehead is worshipped for peace, tranquility &
prosperity.
Krishnamanda/Adi- Swarup/Astbhuja created universe with her smile,
Destroys diseases, sorrows & depression, blesses age, health &
reputation.
Lord Kartikeya-Skanda who was commander in chief in the war against
the demons was son of Skanda Mata. She is worshipped on 5th day of
Navaratri.
6th form of Maa Durga- Katyayni-has 3 eyes & 8 hands, was born to
Rishi Katyayan who practiced penance with a desire to get Paramba as
his daughter.
Black like night, having unlocked hair, wearing necklaces, shining like
lightening, riding on dead body-KALRATRI is the 7th facet of Maa-
Durga.
Fair as conch, moon & Kunda flower, having her body washed by Lord
Shiva with Ganga’s water, 8 year old- is Maha Gauri- the 8th facet of
Maa Durga.
Siddhi’s such Anima, Mahima, Garima, Laghima, Prapti, Prakamaya,
Isitwa & Vasitwa are blessed by the 9th facet of Maa Durga Siddhidatri.
Anirudda, grand-son of Krishana married Usha, daughter of Banasura
a thousand-armed asura the son of Bali.
Lord Rama was thirteen, when he married Sita who was six years old
By all means marry. If you get a good wìfe, you will be happy. If you get
a bad one, you will become a philosopher. SOCRATES
AGASTYA-Sage who drank the ocean.BHAIRATH-Sage who brought
Ganga from heaven.BHARADWAJ-father of teacher Drona.
Naraka in Hinduism is compared to Abrahmic concept of Hell, is ruled
by the Death God,such as the Hebrew bible’s Nergal,the Hindu Yama or
the christian Satan.
One of Sapatrishis, Maharishi Vishwamittera composed GYATRI –
MANTRAMahabhata
is also known as Ithas, Jay & 5th Veda
Pleased with hospitality, Rishi Durvash gave boon to Kunti to have sons
through gods .
Janmejaya , the last king of Pandu’s dynasty was the son of Prikshit,
grandson of Abhimanyu and great grandson of Arjuna.
Some of many incarnations of Maa Durga are- Kali, Bhagvati, Bhavani,
Ambika, Lalita, Gauri, Kandalini, Java and Rajeshwari.
Indian deities are shown with many hands holding some object which
symbolize various qualities.
Balrama the elder brother of Lord Krishana was son of Rohani &
Vasudava
Divine draftsman, Vishvakarama constructed Heaven, Sone Ki
Lanka,Dwarka & Hastinapur in Satya -yug, Tareta, Dwaper & Kaliyug

)

Architect Vishwakarm was also designer of flying chariots, divine
weapons & creator of missiles & Vajra the weapon of Indera.
Apart from Manu- Smriti there are Yagnavlka, Narada, Parashara &
Devala Smrities too.
In Satyug Lord Vishnu had incarnations as Matasya-FISH, Kachap-
TORTOISE, Vahra-BOAR, Narsingh-Half man- Half lion & Vaman-
Dwarf.
King Sibi was put to test by god Indra and god Agni in disguise of hawk
and dove.
Jyotirlings of Shiva with their respective states – Kedarnath-
Uttaranchal, Baijnath- Bihar, Vishwanatha- Uttar Pradesh and
Nageshwar- Gujarat.
The vehicles of MAA LAKSHMI-the goddess of wealth, KARTIKE-the
god of war and KAMDEV- the god of love are owl, peacock and parrot
respectively.
” Shiva ” is a symbol of kindness, friendlyness, graciousness or
auspiciousness.
Vishnu had 5th Vamana Avatar as son of Aditi, one of 13th wife of
Kashyapa, the son of Marichi Maanas-putera of Brahma.
The name of the family priest of Pandavas and Kauravas was
Kripacharya.
Any thing that you do not find in Mahabharta can not be found in any
book of the world.
A Mahayug is a sum total of Sat yug, Treta yug, Dwapar yug and Kal
yug and the lifespan of a Mahayug is 43, 20,000, multiple of 9.
The operator of the universe Lord Vishnu had nine Incarnations so for.
The life span of Satyug is 17,28,000 years, of Treta Yug is12,96,000
years,of Dwapar yug is of 9,96,000 years and that of Kalyug is 4,32,000
years. The life span of every yug is a multiple of 9.
The prime system of worship in Kali-yug is “Sat sang”, in Dwapar it
was “Pooja/ Archana”, in Tretha it was “Yagya” and in Satyug the
prime system of worship was “Tapasya”.
Lord Vishnu had his seventh incarnation as Maryadha Parshotam
Rama in Treta- Yug and had his eighth incarnation as Karm yogi
Krishna in Dwapar-Yug.
“Kyadu” was the mother of “Prahlad Bhagat”, the wife of
“Hiranyakashyapu” wrongly known as “Hiranyakashyap” who was
actually his elder brother. “Holika” was the sister of Hiranyakashyapu
who tried to set Prahlad on fire but was burnt herself.
“Kumbh Mela” festival takes place after twelve years at the following
four locations in India:-. Prayag, at the confluence of three rivers
Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati,
Haridwar, on the bank of river Ganga, Ujjain,on the bank of Ksipra
river and Nasik, on the bank of Godavari river.
The short tempered Rishi Durvasa was the son of Rishi Atri and
Ansuiya and is known as one of the incarnations of Lord Shiva.
“Raj Gopalacharya” was the first who translated Ramayana in
English.
Shubh ( luck ) & Labh ( profit ) are known as the two sons of Lord
Ganesha, the God of fortune.
Ridhi (grandeur) and Siddhi (accomplishment) are known as the two
wives of Lord Ganesha.
Among 18 Purans , Shrimad Bhagwat Puran is considered as the
supreme.
Only one temple in Pushkar in Rajasthan is attributed to Brahma.
Sri Lanka was constructed by Vishwakarma on the instance of Lord
Shiva for his consort Parvati.
“Trishul – Pani” was the first incarnation of Lord Shiva.
Kaydu, the wife of Hiranyakeshapu and Suniti, the wife of Uttanpad
were the mothers of Prahlad and Dhruv respectively.
King Janaka & his minister Sumanta were married on same day, Hour
& place
Devahuti, Prasuti and Akuti were the grand daughters of Lord
Brahma.
Bhagirath who brought river Ganga to earth was the son of Dileep &
grandson of Anshuman.
Barbreek, the son of Ghatotkach and the grandson of Bheema offered
his head as “Gurudakshana” to Lord Krishna and now is worshipped
as “Khatushyam”.
Disrespecting the elders “Dushasana”, the brother of “Duryodhana”
shot the first arrow in the battle of Mahabharata
None of the elderly persons of Mahabharata ever wished Duryodhana
“Vijay Bhava”- (May you win).
Saraswati, the consort of Brahma is known as Goddess of Education &
Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu is known as Goddess of Wealth
According to Indian mythology Ahalaya, Droupadi, Tara, Kunti &
Mandhodri though married yet are considered damsel.
According to Indian mythology Ashavathama, Kripacharya, Ved Vyas,
Hanumana, Raja Balli, Vibhishana & Pershurama are considered
immortal.
Born at Phillour in Punjab, Shivanand composed Aarti”OM JAi
JAGDISH.” in 1870 .
Arjuna the prominent character of Mahabharata is also known as
Savyasachin – “one who can perform every task with either of his
hands”.
Dharmkashatra, Sathyam- Shivam & Sunderam temples of worship
established by Sathya Sai Baba are at Mumbai, Hyderabad & Chennai
respectively.
Out of 51 Shakti-Peeth, “places of worship of Goddess Shakti” the most
important Shakti Peeth known as the Kamakshi temple is in the state of
Assam.
Siddhi and Buddhi the wives of Ganesha were daughters of Vish- varna
and grand daughters of Kashyap.
Four temples of Lord Shiva in the state of Maharashtra are known as
Grishneshwar, Bhimashankar, Mahakaleshwar & Tryambakashwar.
Sathya-Sai-Baba claimed himself to be the re-incarnation of Shirdi -Sai-
Baba on May 23, 1940
Ikshvaku dynasty was started by Vivasvan, the grandson of Marichi,
one of the Manas putr of Brahma and ended by Lov and Kush, the sons
of Rama.
Out of 108 names of Lord Shiva, Hara-sin remover, Omkara-creator of
Om and Umapati- consort of Uma are the only names that start with H,
O and U.
Nine words- of GAYATRl-MANTRA stand for humility, austerity,
orderliness, co-operation, wisdom, integrity, responsibility & courage.
One of the importance of No 108 is that diameter of the sun is 108 times
the diameter of the earth.
The MALA has 108 beads & in Sikh tradition has a MALA OF 108
Knots tied in a string of wool, there are 108 forms of dance.
Due to severe penance Bhagat Dhruv was blessed to rule for a period of
36000 yrs approx and was also granted an eternal place in heaven as
pole star.
The river Saraswati was brought to earth by Rishi Keshava in the same
way as Bhagiratha brought Ganga to the earth.
Lord Krishna mastered 64 subjects in 64 days with the blessings of his
teacher Rishi Garg.
Black beauty, Draupadi is the only example of a woman having 5
brothers as her husbands.
Devhuti, the wife of Rishi Kardam was daughter of Swayambhav Manu
& Shatrupa who are known as the progenitors of human race.
Uttanpada the father of Dhruv (the pole star) was the son of
Swayambhav Manu & Shatrupa
The Bhagwad Gita consisting of 18 chapters is divided into three
segments Vishad Yog,Karam Yog and Bhakti Yog consisting of 6
chapters each.
Neglecting Bheeshma and Yudhishtra,due to the absence of steadiness
in their actions & thinking,Krishna chose Arjuna to deliver the
discourse of Gita.
Lord Vishnu had 4 incarnations in Sat Yug , 3 in Treta Yug , 1 in
Dwapar Yug , 1 in Kal Yug and 1 is yet awaited.
Names of Sapatrishi of present MANVANTRA are Atri, Vashishtha,
Gautama, Jamadagni Kashyapa, Vishvamitra & Bharadvaja.
Having been insulted by the sons of King Sagar, Rishi Kapil, the son of
Rishi Kardam reduced them into ashes.
According to Hindu religion “Shikha ” tuft of hair is known as flag of
Kala, Anusuya, Gati, Kriya, Khyati, Arundhati & Shanti were married
to Rishi Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vashishtha & Atharva
respectively.
The vehicles of Lord Shiva family were “Nandi”-the ox, “Singh”-the
lion, “Moosak”-the rat and “Mor”-the peacock.
“Geeta”, the essence of Indian mythology is composed in 700 verses, out
of which Lord Krishna recited only 577 verses.
The cremation of “Daanvir Karna”, an important character of
Mahabharata was performed on the hand of Lord Krishna.
Ansuiya the wife of Rishi Attari is known as symbol of fidelity.
Shukaracharya is known as the Guru of Asurs “Demons” and Brishpati
is known as the Guru of Surs “Devas”.
“Savitri” was the pious Hindu woman who managed to get her husband
back to life after he died.
Celestial musicians who are half bird and half human are known as
“Kinnaris”.
Upanishads/ Vedanta’s are 108 in no; only 12 are the most important,
are the last part of Vedas & are in the form of dialogue between Guru &
disciples.
The preceptor of devas, Brihaspati identified as Jupiter one of the
planets (Navgrah) was the son of Angirasa and Surupa.
Lord Shiva’s body consists of five faces- Sadyojata, Vamadeva, Aghora,
Tatpurusa and Isana which are known as Pancabrehmans.
According to Indian Mythology the vehicles of Kubera, Indera and
Yum-Raj are Pushpak- Viman, Aravat (the elephant) and Buffalo
respectively.
Goddess Sheetala , God Varun and Shani had donkey, seven swans and
crow as their respective vehicles.
The seven sacred rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari,
Saraswati, Narmada, Sindhu and Kaveri.
Kardam Rishi & Devhuti were the parents of 9 daughters- Kala,
Ansuya, Gati,Kriya, Khyati, Arundhati, Shanti, Havirbhu & Shraddha
& 1 son- Rishi Kapil.
Lord Shiva has six, eight and twelve arms while in boon giving form,
destructive form and benign form respectively.
Siddhidhatri, Kalaratri, Shailputri, Brahmacharini, Katyayani,
Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandmata and Mahagauri are known as
the Nava Durgas.
Dattatreya was the confluence of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara.
Goddess Meenakshi, the sister of Lord Vishnu and the consort of Lord
Shiva had three breast before her marriage.
Lord Vishnu had incarnations as Preshni-Garav, Upinder & Krishna
born to the same parents with different names Pershin/Sulpa,
Aditi/Kashap & Devki/Vasudev.
In Sanskrit “Ga” stands for Knowledge, “Na” for Transcendence &
“Ish” for lordship. It means Ganesha stands for lord that transcendence
the knowledge.
The troops of Lord Shiva were known as “Gana”. Lord Shiva
appointed Ganesha as commander of His troops, thus he is known as
Ganapati.
Son of Surya -Sanjana & husband of Shamale, Yum-raj is also known
as Mrtyu, Kala, Antaka, Vaivasvata, Sarva-panchera & Dharam-raj.
The first Shloka “Verse” spoken by Lord Krishna in The Bhagwad Gita
is number 11 of Parva “Chapter” 2 .
Ashta Lakshmi comprises of Adi Lakshmi, Dhanya Lakshmi, Dhairya
Lakshmi, Gaja Lakshmi, Santana Lakshmi, Vidya Lakshmi, Vijaya
Lakshmi & Dhana Lakshmi.
“Rahu-Ketu” the uninvited are the head and body of the same being
while Rahu represent short lived fortune, Ketu denotes the feeling of
emptyness.
Among the Panch Parameshwaras Lord Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha,
Surya and Maa Durga, lord Shiva is known as Maha Deva.
Bhagavad Gita is like a lighthouse of eternal wisdom that inspires any
man or woman to supreme accomplishment & enlightenment.
Ishvara/ Supreme controller, Jiva/ soul, Prakriti/Matter, Dharma/duty
& Kala/time are philosophical subject matters explained in the
Bhagavat-Gita.
Amravati is the capital of Swarga ruled by Indera the king of gods &
Alakaapuri is the capital of Kubera, the God of Wealth.
Lord Rama was born on 10th January, 5114 BC. HE was exiled for 14
years on his 25th birth day. He killed Bali on 7th Oct. 5077 BC.
Out of 700 verses of Gita , 577, 79.5 , 42.5 and 1 have been recited by
Lord Krishna , Arjuna , Sanjay and Dharitrashtra respectively.
Ganesha the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati is the only son of
God and Goddess who too is worshipped.
The robes of saffron color worn by the Indian sages are a symbol of
renunciation of all worldly pleasures & the flag of Sanatan Dharma too
represents this.

Moderator: Many thanks to bandhu Aditham  for collection and presentation of wonderful information.

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