மார்கழியின் சிறப்பு;


மார்கழியின் சிறப்பு;

மார்கழி மாத சிறப்புகள்

நமது மனித நாளில் காலை 4 மணி முதல் 6 மணிவரையான காலம் பிரம்ம முகூர்த்தம் என்றழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. சூரிய உதயத்திற்கு முந்தைய இந்தக் காலம் இறைவனை வணங்குவதற்கும், யோக சித்திக்கும் உகந்த நேரம் என்பதை உணர்ந்த நம் முன்னோர்கள் அதிகாலை துயிலெழுவதை ஒரு வழக்கமாக்கிக் கொள்ள வலியுறுத்தினர். நம்முடைய ஒரு வருடம் தேவர்களுக்கு ஒரு நாள் ஆகும். ஆகவே தேவர்களுடைய சூரிய உதயமான உத்தராயண காலத்திற்கு(தை மாதம்) முந்திய மார்கழி மாதம் தேவர்களின் பிரம்ம மூர்த்தமான காலமே மார்கழி மாதம். தேவர்கள் செய்யும் ஆறு கால பூஜையின் உதய கால பூஜையே திருவாதிரை பூஜையாகும்.

எல்லோரும் நினைப்பது போல மார்கழி மாதத்தில் வேறு நிகழ்ச்சிகள் எதுவும் நடத்தாமல் இருப்பதற்கு காரணம் வேறு எதைப் பற்றியும் நினைக்காமல் அந்த இறைவனை மட்டுமே நாம் நினைக்க வேண்டும் என்பதற்காகத்தான், தெய்வ காரியங்களுக்காகவே ஏற்பட்ட மாதம் மார்கழி மாதம். அதனால் இந்த மாதம் முழுவதும் அனைத்து ஆலயங்களிலும் பிரம்ம முகூர்த்தத்தில் தனுர் மாத பூஜை சிறப்பாக நடைபெறுகின்றது. பாவை நோன்பைக் கொண்டாடுவதும் இந்த மாதத்தில்தான். எனவே தான் சிவத்தலங்களில் திருவெம்பாவையும், வைணவத் தலங்களில் திருப்பாவையும் சேவிக்கப்படுகின்றன.

தட்சாயண காலத்தின் கடைசி மாதம் மார்கழி, ருதுவில் இது ஹேமந்த ருது. தனுர் மாதம் என்றும் அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. வேத ஞானத்தின் மணி முடியாகத் திகழும் ஸ்ரீமத் பகவத் கீதையில் “மாஸானாம் மார்கசீர்ஷோ அஹம்” அதாவது “மாதங்களில் நான் மார்கழி” என்று கிருஷ்ண பரமாத்மா கூறுகின்றார். இம்மாதத்தில் தான் பௌதீக நிலையின் அறியாமையிலிருந்து மனித குலத்தை விடுவிக்க அர்ஜ”னனுக்கு ஸ்ரீ கிருஷ்ணர் கீதோபதேசம் செய்தார்.

மார்கழி மாதத்தில் ஆருத்ரா தரிசனமும், வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசியும் கொண்டாடப்படுகின்றது. சிவ பெருமானின் நட்சத்திரமாக கருதப்படுவது திருவாதிரை என்னும் ஆதிரை தரிசனம் அன்றைய தினம் தேவர்களின் பூஜையினால் மனம் மகிழ்ந்த நடராஜப் பெருமான் தமது ஆனந்த தாண்டவத்தை காட்டியருளிகின்றார். அனைத்து சைவத் தலங்களிலும் இன்றைய தினம் நடராஜப்பெருமானுக்கு சிறப்பு அபிஷேகம் நடைபெறுகின்றது.

பல சைவத்தலங்களில் இவ்விழா பத்து நாள் விழாவாகக் கொண்டாடப்படுகின்றது. விரதங்களில் சிறந்தது ஏகாதசி விரதம், மார்கழி மாத ஏகாதசி விரதம் வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசி என்றும், முப்பத்து முக்கோடி ஏகாதசியென்றும் போற்றப்படுகின்றது. பல வைணவ தலங்களில் வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசியை ஒட்டி அத்யயனோற்சவம் நடைபெறுகின்றது.

மார்கழி மாத சிறப்புகள்

 நமது மனித நாளில் காலை 4 மணி முதல் 6 மணிவரையான காலம் பிரம்ம முகூர்த்தம் என்றழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. சூரிய உதயத்திற்கு முந்தைய இந்தக் காலம் இறைவனை வணங்குவதற்கும், யோக சித்திக்கும் உகந்த நேரம் என்பதை உணர்ந்த நம் முன்னோர்கள் அதிகாலை துயிலெழுவதை ஒரு வழக்கமாக்கிக் கொள்ள வலியுறுத்தினர். நம்முடைய ஒரு வருடம் தேவர்களுக்கு ஒரு நாள் ஆகும். ஆகவே தேவர்களுடைய சூரிய உதயமான உத்தராயண காலத்திற்கு(தை மாதம்) முந்திய மார்கழி மாதம் தேவர்களின் பிரம்ம மூர்த்தமான காலமே மார்கழி மாதம். தேவர்கள் செய்யும் ஆறு கால பூஜையின் உதய கால பூஜையே திருவாதிரை பூஜையாகும்.

எல்லோரும் நினைப்பது போல மார்கழி மாதத்தில் வேறு நிகழ்ச்சிகள் எதுவும் நடத்தாமல் இருப்பதற்கு காரணம் வேறு எதைப் பற்றியும் நினைக்காமல் அந்த இறைவனை மட்டுமே நாம் நினைக்க வேண்டும் என்பதற்காகத்தான், தெய்வ காரியங்களுக்காகவே ஏற்பட்ட மாதம் மார்கழி மாதம். அதனால் இந்த மாதம் முழுவதும் அனைத்து ஆலயங்களிலும் பிரம்ம முகூர்த்தத்தில் தனுர் மாத பூஜை சிறப்பாக நடைபெறுகின்றது. பாவை நோன்பைக் கொண்டாடுவதும் இந்த மாதத்தில்தான். எனவே தான் சிவத்தலங்களில் திருவெம்பாவையும், வைணவத் தலங்களில் திருப்பாவையும் சேவிக்கப்படுகின்றன.

தட்சாயண காலத்தின் கடைசி மாதம் மார்கழி, ருதுவில் இது ஹேமந்த ருது. தனுர் மாதம் என்றும் அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. வேத ஞானத்தின் மணி முடியாகத் திகழும் ஸ்ரீமத் பகவத் கீதையில் "மாஸானாம் மார்கசீர்ஷோ அஹம்" அதாவது "மாதங்களில் நான் மார்கழி" என்று கிருஷ்ண பரமாத்மா கூறுகின்றார். இம்மாதத்தில் தான் பௌதீக நிலையின் அறியாமையிலிருந்து மனித குலத்தை விடுவிக்க அர்ஜ"னனுக்கு ஸ்ரீ கிருஷ்ணர் கீதோபதேசம் செய்தார்.

மார்கழி மாதத்தில் ஆருத்ரா தரிசனமும், வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசியும் கொண்டாடப்படுகின்றது. சிவ பெருமானின் நட்சத்திரமாக கருதப்படுவது திருவாதிரை என்னும் ஆதிரை தரிசனம் அன்றைய தினம் தேவர்களின் பூஜையினால் மனம் மகிழ்ந்த நடராஜப் பெருமான் தமது ஆனந்த தாண்டவத்தை காட்டியருளிகின்றார். அனைத்து சைவத் தலங்களிலும் இன்றைய தினம் நடராஜப்பெருமானுக்கு சிறப்பு அபிஷேகம் நடைபெறுகின்றது.
பல சைவத்தலங்களில் இவ்விழா பத்து நாள் விழாவாகக் கொண்டாடப்படுகின்றது. விரதங்களில் சிறந்தது ஏகாதசி விரதம், மார்கழி மாத ஏகாதசி விரதம் வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசி என்றும், முப்பத்து முக்கோடி ஏகாதசியென்றும் போற்றப்படுகின்றது. பல வைணவ தலங்களில் வைகுண்ட ஏகாதசியை ஒட்டி அத்யயனோற்சவம் நடைபெறுகின்றது.

 

How Nehru betrayed Patel after his death?


 

 

These anecdotes are from Verghese Kurien’s memoirs I Too Had A Dream
Maniben Patel,Sardar Patel’s daughter, was a woman of tremendous honesty and loyalty.She told me that when Sardar Patel passed way, she picked up a book and a bag that belonged to him and went to meet Jawaharlal Nehru in Delhi.She handed them to Nehru, telling him hat her father had instructed her that when she died she should give these items to Nehru and no one else.The bag contained Rs 35 Lakh that belonged to the Congress Party and the book was the party’s book of accounts.Nehru took them and thanked her.Maniben waited expectantly, hoping he would say something more,but he did not, so she got up and left.
I asked her what she had expected Nehru to say to her. ‘I thought he might ask me how I would manage now, or atleast ask if there was anything he could do to help me.But he never asked.’ she explained.She was extremely disheartened and in a way the incident revealed the strain in the Nehru-Sardar Patel relationship.It was quite distressing to see that neither Nehru nor any of the other national leaders of the Congress ever bothered to find out what happened to Maniben after her father died.”
“After all the sacrifices that Sardar Patel made for the nation, it was very sad that the nation did nothing for his daughter.In her later years,when her eyesight weakened,she would walk unaided down the streets of Ahmedabad,often stumble and fall until some passerby helped her up.When she was dying, the Chief Minister of Gujarat, Chimanbhai Patel,came to her bedside with a photographer.He stood behind her bed and instructed him to take a picture.The photograph was published in  all the newspapers the next day.With a little effort,they could so easily have made her last years  comfortable”
What an amazing contrast in fortunes of Nehru’s family and Sardar Patel’s family !!!

 

Brahmins


Bhrahmins

BRAHMINS

 

Brahmin Motto:

|| Lokaha Samastaha Sukhino Bhavanthu || (May the whole world be happy)

|| Sarve Jana Sukhino Bhavanthu || (May all people be happy)

|| Sarva Jeeva Janthu Sukhino Bhavanthu || (May all beings be happy)


“The wisdom of the ancients has been taught by the philosophers of Greece, but also by people called Jews in Syria, and by Brahmins in India
.”

-Megasthenes, Greek Ambassador to Gupta Empire of India (now Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India), writing around 300 BC.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

 

In the ancient world and even in the modern society people usually form cohesive groups based on their language, culture and geographical location.  These groups have a common ancestry and are led by chiefs of the families around which they gathered.  Such communities are called tribes1. There are innumerable tribes in this world.  The Indian continent is not different from the rest of the world1b as far as tribes and the rivalries between them are concerned.

 

It seems there are two kinds of tribes in the Indian continent, the tribes and castes2. The tribes are still in the forests and hills and not really part of the modern society.  Castes have been living in the villages and cities since ancient times and are civilized. In the Indian Continent, a caste means a modern civilized tribe or clan or group of people that have marital relationship among them.  Some castes are further divided into subcastes.  Matrimonial relationship among subcastes is not acceptable due to differences in religious and cultural practices.  It is important to note that the caste or tribe is blood-related and genetic, and hence hereditary.  So, one has to be born into a caste or tribe to belong to that tribe or caste.  Again, this is not unique to India.  These ancient tribal traditions are slowly disappearing in this modern age3.  One among such communities in the Indian continent is the Brahmin caste. For consistency in this article, Brahmins are referred to as a caste.

 

Brahmin Population4

The census of 1881 enumerated 1,929 castes.  Brahmins, Kunbis and Chamars accounted for approximately 10 million each. Of these 1,929 castes, 1,432 (74 per cent) were geographically localized groups and each caste or tribe is unique to a particular place.  Only few castes like Brahmins had an all-India presence.

 

Brahmins are one of many minority groups in India. In 1931, Brahmins were 4.32% of the total population. The so-called Muslim minority in India is approximately 20 to 25 percent of the total population, even after Muslim Pakistan and Muslim Bangladesh separated from India. However, registered Muslim percentage is only ~15%, less than the real percentage of the total population, due to misrepresentation.  Brahmins even in Uttar Pradesh, where they are most numerous, constitute just 9 percent. In Tamil Nadu they form less than 3 percent and in Andhra Pradesh they are less than 2 percent.

 

During the Islamic conquests in India, it was a typical policy to single out the Brahmins for slaughter, after the Hindu warriors had been bled to death on the battlefield. Even the Portuguese in Malabar and Goa followed this policy in the 16th century, as can be deduced from Hindu-Portuguese treaty clauses prohibiting the Portuguese from killing Brahmins.(http://sarvadharma.org/Museum/Articles/islamicgenocide.htm)

 

Geographical Location

Brahmins are Vedik people.  The Vedas describe the landscape of northern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Over and over the Vedas mention a mighty river called the Sarasvati where Brahmin communities flourished, where the Indus Valley civilization flourished and dispersed when the Saraswati river dried up around 1900 BCE.  Long before, during the Ramayana period Brahmins migrated to Dandakaranya (Dandaka Forest) in the south with Viswamitra, the author of several hymns in Rigveda including Gayatri mantra, and practiced Vedik religon performing yajnas under the protection of Lord Rama and Lakshmana.   Long before Rama went south,  Agastya, a prominent Brahmin sage and writer of several hymns of Rigveda, crossed Vindhyas and established Vedik religion in south India.  Sage Agastya appeared to Rama when he was despondent at the impending war with Ravana and instructed him in the use of Aditya Hridayam, a hymn praising the Sun God. Brahmins have been migrating to various regions within the Indian Continent since time immemorial and recently to other continents as well.

 

Meaning of “Brahmin”

The word Brahmin means many things to many people resulting in confusion.  One of the reasons for this confusion is Sanskrit language5.  Many words in Sanskrit have many meanings6.  Depending upon the context one has to take the meaning of the word. The word Brahmana (hereinafter “Brahmin”) means the God, one who knows God, one who has the knowledge of God, one who has the knowledge of Vedas, an intellectual, a priest, a teacher, a professor, a person belonging to Brahmin caste, a superior person, a text related to Vedas, and so on7.  Accordingly, priests in a mosque, church,  a synagogue, a gurudwara etc. are all Brahmins because they are all , obviously, priests. They are also Brahmins because they are supposed to have the knowledge of God.  They are also Brahmins because they are intellectuals. However, none of them are God and at least a couple of them would consider it blesphemous to say so.  They may not have the knowledge of the Vedas and they may not belong to the Brahmin caste.  And certainly, they are not the texts related to Vedas. To add to this confusion there are Boston Brahmins who are Americans and have nothing to do with the Vedas or vegetarianism. They are not even remotely related to the Indian Continent.

 

There are hundreds of religions, practices, traditions, castes, tribes etc. dubbed as Hinduism. One among those religions is the Brahminism8practiced by the Brahmin caste.  Brahmins have distinct traditions, culture and religion and follow certain principles and practices.  This religion9 may also be called Sanatana (ancient) Dharma or Vedic religion.  However, there is a lot of confusion as to the definition ofHinduism10, which encompasses everything indigenous to the Indian Continent, e.g., some  groups of Indians like Busddhists, Jains, Sikhs, dalitChristians, Muslims, and people like Iliah Kanche, a Kuruma Christian, confuse Brahminism with Hinduism (Indigenous Religions of Indian Continent). Iliah Kanche declares that he is not a Hindu, because he does not follow any of the principles of Brahmins such as vegetarianism etc. However, Brahminism is only one of the many religions of India that are collectively called Hinduism.  Yet, almost all other Indian (Hindu) religions also respect the Vedas because they are essentially the human heritage and the most ancient texts. The Rig Veda was declared by UNESCO as part of the world heritage.

 

Most of the practicing Brahmins adhere to the principles such as acceptance of the Vedas with reverence; recognition of the fact that the means or ways to salvation and realization of the truth are diverse; God is one, but has innumerable names and forms to chant and worship due to our varied perceptions, cultures and languages; that a Brahmin works for the welfare of the entire society and so on.  Daily practices of Brahmins include sandhyavandana (prayers to Gayatri and Sun God), prayer to ishtadaiva or ilavelpu (personal God), yoga, non-violence, vegetarianism etc. Everything in the daily life of a Brahmin is a ritual.  However, special rituals include marriage, ritual conception and consummation of the wedding, rituals of childbirth, naming ceremony, first feeding ceremony, the child’s first tonsure, upanayana (the sacred-thread ceremony – initiation into vedic learning and ritual), ritual baths, cremation rituals, shraaddha, etc.  All of these rituals are very important for a practicing Brahmin.

 

The Vedas are the primary source of knowledge for all Brahmin traditions, both orthodox & heterodox.  All religions of Brahmins and all traditions, in one way or other, take inspiration from the Vedas.  Traditional Brahmin accepts Vedas as apaurusheyam (not man-made), but revealed truths and of eternal validity or relevance and hence the Vedas are considered Srutis that which have been heard and are the paramount source of Brahmin traditions and is believed to be divine.  These Srutis include not only the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respective Brahmanas.  Brahmins also give tremendous importance to purity of body and mind and hence attach importance to ritual baths and cleanliness.

 

Brahmin Sages and Branches (Gotras and Subcastes)11:

 

In general, gotra denotes all persons who trace descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Panini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as ‘ apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram’ (IV. 1. 162), which means ‘the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. When a person says ‘ I am Kashypasa-gotra’ he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. According to the Baudhâyanas’rauta-sûtra Vishvâmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages; the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be gotras. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to PâNini. The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called ‘ gotrâvayava ‘.

 

The gotras are arranged in groups, e. g. there are according to the Âsvalâyana-srautasûtra four subdivisions of the Vasishtha gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parâshara, Kundina and Vasishtha (other than the first three). Each of these four again has numerous sub-sections, each being called gotra. So the arrangement is first into ganas, then into pakshas, then into individual gotras. The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Ângirasa gana. According to Baud, the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vasishtha, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada; the pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vasishtha, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vasishtha, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vasishthas other than these three is simply Vasishtha. It is therefore that some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another.

 

There are two kinds of pravaras, 1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and 2) putrparampara. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara). This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. When it is sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage is not acceptable if half or more than half of the rishis are same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.

 

Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools which they belong to, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes.

 

The Beginning of Divisions among Brahmins: sutra Period: During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BC to 200 BC, Brahmins became divided into various Sakhas or branches, based on the adoption of different Vedas and different readings and interpretations of Vedas.  Sects or schools for different denominations of the same Veda were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among Brahmins.   The teachings of these distinguished rishis are called sutras.  Every Veda has its own sutras. The sutras that deal with social, moral and legal precepts are called dharma sutras, whereas those sutras that deal with ceremonials are called Srauta sutras and domestic rituals are calledgruhya sutras.  sutras are generally written in prose or in mixed prose and verse.  These sutras are based on divine Vedas and are manmade and hence are called Smritis, meaning “recollected or remembered.”

 

There are several Brahmin law givers such as Angirasa, Apasthambha, Atri, Brihaspati, Boudhayana, Daksha, Gautama, Harita, Katyayana, Likhita, Manu, Parasara, Samvarta, Sankha, Satatapa, Usanasa, Vasishta, Vishnu, Vyasa, Yajnavalkya and Yama.  These twenty-one rishis were the propounders of Dharma Sastras.  There is a lot of contradiction among theseDarmasastas, even within one Smriti.  These differences in the rules and rituals resulted in the rigid stratification of subcastes among Brahmins. None of these smritis is supreme and universally applicable throughout the Indian Continent.  The oldest among these Dharma Sutras are Apasthambha, Baudhayana, Gautama and Vasishta Sutras.

 

   Apasthambha: Apasthambha, a native of Andhra Country, belonged to Krishnayajurveda School. He belonged to fifth century BC. Apasthambha’s teachings are called Apasthambhasutra or Apasthambhasmriti.

     Baudhayana: Baudhayana also belonged to Krishnayajurveda School and was an inhabitant of Andhra Country. Baudhayana’s teachings are called Baudhayanasutra or Baudhayanasmriti.

     Brihaspati: Brihaspati was probably the first jurist to make a clear distinction between civil and criminal justice. Yajnavalkya referred to Brihaspati.  However, Brihaspati is considered to belong to 200-400 AD.  Brihaspatismriti has a lot of similarities with Dhammathats of Myanmar (Burma).

   Gautama: Gautama was the most ancient sage of all Brahmin lawgivers. He was quoted by Baudhayana and belonged to Samaveda School.  Gautama’s teachings are called Gautamasutra or Gautamasmriti.

    Harita: Baudhayana and Vasishta in their Dharmasutras quote Harita.  Haritasmriti or Haritasutra is an extensive work.

   Katyayana: Yajnavalkya mentions Katyayana. Katyayanasmriti is quoted in several works of Viswarupa, Mitramisra etc.  Smriti Chandrika cites 600 verses of Katyayanasutras. He may belong to the same period as Narada and Brihaspati.

    Manu: Manu is a mythical personality and is the ancestor of the entire humankind.  Manu received the code from Brahma, and communicated it to ten sages and requested Bhrigu rishi to repeat it to the other nine.  This code of conduct recited by Bhrigu is called Manusmriti.  For convenience, the British took Manusmriti as the paramount law of the Indian Continent. Manudharma is not only revered by Brahmins and Hindus, but also by Buddhists in Java, Siam and Myanamar.  Manusmriti was composed around 200 BC, around which time a revival of Brahminism took place under the rule Sungas in the North India.

   Narada: Sage Narada was probably a native of Nepal around first century AD.  Naradasmriti is the first legal code unhampered by the mass of religious and moral teachings. Some authors think that Narada belonged to Gupta period when there was a distinct revival of Brahminism and Sanskrit literature.

    Vasishta: Vasishta belonged to 3rd century BC and a native of North India. Vasishta’s teachings are called Vasishtasutra or Vasishtasmriti.

    Vishnu: Vishnu belonged to 1st or 2nd century AD. Vishnu’s teachings are called Vishnusutra or Vishnusmriti.

   Yajnavalkya: Yajnavalkya belonged to Suklayajurveda School12.  He was a native of Mithila City in North Bihar and probably lived anywhere from few centuries before Christ to 200 AD.  However, some scholars think he belonged to first or second century AD.  Yajnavalkya Dharmasmriti has been subject of numerous commentaries. The most celebrated of all the commentaries of Yajnavlkyasmriti is Mitakshara and is practically the beginning of the Brahmin law and the so-called Hindu law.  Passages from Mitakshara have been found practically in every part of the Indian Continent and became an authority.  The Yajnavlkyasmriti is concise, more systematic and better arranged than the Manusmriti. From early times, commentators like Viswarupa, Vijnaneswara, Apararka, Sulapani, Mitramisra etc., from every part of India selected theYajnavalkyasmriti as the basis of their commentaries.  Passages from Yajnavalkyasmiriti appeared in Panchatantra.

 

Other important Brahmins who gave smritis/sutras/laws are: Angirasa, Atri, Daksha, Devala, Laugakshi, Prajapati, Pitamaha, Pulatsya, Yama, Vyasa, Samvarta and Satatapa.  Prominent smriti writers of later age include, Devanabhatta or Devanandabhatta of Madras province, who belonged to ~1200 AD and wrote Smritichandrika, and Madhavacharya or Vidyaranya, who was the Prime Minister of Vijayanagara dynasty and pontiff for some time of the celebrated mutth at Sringeri in Mysore province. He wrote Parasaramadhaviya, which is a commentary onParasarasmriti.

 

Major Brahmin Castes: Major Brahmin castes in the Indian Continent include Chitpavana Brahmins, Daivajna Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins, Dhima Brahmins, Gouda Saraswat Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins, Iyers, Kandavara Brahmins, Karade Brahmins, Karhada Brahmins, Kayastha Brahmins,  Khandelwal Brahmins, Kota Brahmins, Konkanastha Brahmins, Koteshwara Brahmins, Nagar Brahmins, Namboothiri Brahmins, Niyogi Brahmins, Padia Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Saklapuri Brahmins, Sanketi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Smarta Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Thenkalai Iyengars, Tuluva Brahmins, Vadagalai Iyengars, Vaidiki Brahmins and Vaishnava Brahmins.

 

In addition to the above major castes of Brahmins, there are several Brahmin subcastes.  The Rev. M.A. Sherring4 had, in the 1860s, compiled some 2,000 of them in the second volume of his Hindu Tribes and Castes.  He considered the list incomplete.  The Brahmin subcastes are grouped under various gotras13 that are patrilineal groups.

 

According to some Shashtras and popular belief as mentioned in “Hindu Castes and Sects” (by Jogendranath Battacharya), the Brahmins in the Indian Continent are divided into two major groups: Panch Gaur and Panch Dravida.  Panch Gaur (the five classes of Northern India) group constitutes: 1) Saraswata, 2) Kanyakubja, 3) Gaudra, 4) Utkala, and 5) Maithila. In addition, for the purpose of giving an account of Northern Brahmins each of the provinces must be considered separately, such as, North Western Provinces, Gandhar, Punjab, Kashmir, Sindh, Rajputana, Kurukshetra, Oudh, Cetral India, Trihoot, South Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Assam etc. Panch Dravida (the five classes of Southern India) group constitutes: 1) Andhra, 2) Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), 3) Karnataka, 4) Maharashtra, 5) Gujarat.

 

According to one legend (according to Sherring), all the chief Brahmin gotras are descended from the Saptarishis (seven sages). Sherring says the Vatsa, Bida, Arshtikhena, Yaska, Mitryu, Shaunak and Bainya gotras claim descent from sage Bhrigu; the gotras of Gautam, Bharadwaj and Kewal-Angiras from sage Angirah; the Atre, Badbhutak, Garishtira and Mudhgala from sage Atri; the Kaushika, Lohit, Raukshak, Kamkayana, Aja, Katab, Dhananjya, Agamarkhan, Puran and Indrakaushika from sage Viswamitra; the Nidruba, Kasyap, Sandila, Rebha and Langakshi from sage Kasyap; the Vashisht, Kundin, Upamanyu, Parashara and Jatukaraniya from sage Vashisht; and the Idhamabahar, Somabahar, Sambhabahar and Yagyabhar from sage Agastya. Other gotras are said to have been derived from these gotras.

 

Sherring has also listed some chief gotras according to the Veda each one observes. Thus the Bhargaus, Sankritas, Gargs (Chandras), Bhrigus and Saunaks follow the Rig. The Kasyaps, Kaasyaps, Vatsas, Sandilas and Dhananjays follow the Sama. The Bharadwajs, Bhaaradwajs, Angirahs, Gautams and Upamanyus observe the Yajur; and the Kaushikas, Gritakaushikas, Mudhgalas, Galawas and Vashishts follow the Atharva. All others follow the Yajur. The Brahmin subcastes are broadly categorized into two great geographical divisions-the north and the south. The dividing line is the Narmada River. The gaur (white) subcastes, according to Sherring, inhabit the region north of the Narmada and the draviDa subcastes, the south. The chief gaur subcastes are Kanakubja, Saraswat, Gaur, Maithila and Utkala and the chief draviDa subcastes are Maharashtra, Tailanga, Dravida, Karnata and Gurjar.  Then there are supplementary subcastes like Mathur (from Mathura), Magadh, Malwa, Kurmachali, Naipali (from Nepal), Kashmiri, Sapt-Shati, Shenevi, Palashe, Sengardaro, Sankahar, Thatiya, Ahwasi (Haiwasi), Byas, Bilwar, Lrikhishwar, Agachi, Bagaria (Parchuniya), Unwariya, Golapurab, Lyariya, Nade, Myale, Dasadwipi, Dehra-dun, the names largely indicating their habitat. Today, many Brahmins don’t know and don’t care about these distinctions, which are now of historical importance only.  Intermarriages are becoming very common among these groups, nowadays.  As a matter of fact, Brahmins have been marrying non-Brahmins also.

 

 

Various Brahmin Communities15 (Note: The following list does not represent all the Brahmin castes of the Indian Continent)

 

1) Andhra Brahmins

i) Niyogi Brahmins

ii) Vaidiki Brahmins

2) Chitpavana Brahmins

3) Daivajna Brahmins

4) Deshastha Brahmins

5) Dhima Brahmins

6) Gaur Brahmins

7) Gouda SaraswatBrahmins

8) Havyaka Brahmins 

9) Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins: The Hoysala Karnatakas are Smarta Brahmins living in the State of Karnataka in the Indian Union. Many eminent scholars, musicians, philosophers, generals and religious pontiffs belong to this community. (Read more here)

10) Iyers

11) Kandavara Brahmins

12) Karade Brahmins

13) Karhada Brahmins

14) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins

15) Kayastha Brahmins

16) Khandelwal Brahmins

17) Konkanastha Brahmins

18) Kota Brahmins

19) Koteshwara Brahmins

20) Nagar Brahmins

21) Namboothiri Brahmins

22) Padia Brahmins

23) Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins

24) Saklapuri Brahmins

25) Sanketi Brahmins

26) Saraswat Brahmins 

a) The Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins

b) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins or Kashmiri Pandits

c) Rajapur/Balawalikar Saraswat Brahmins 

d) Haryana Saraswat Brahmins

27) Shivalli Brahmins

28) Smarta Brahmins

29) Sthanika Brahmins

30) Tuluva Brahmins 

31)Vaishnava Brahmins

 

 

Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh16

 

Brahmins have been migrating from time immemorial. The Brahmin families that migrated made an impact peacefully by example rather than converting people by any means.

 

The Brahmin migration to the South features in the legends of sage Agastya.  The Vindhya mountain range in central India continued to grow higher showing its might and obstructed cloud movement causing draught. Sage Agastya decided to solve the problem and traveled south. The Vindhya mountain bowed to Agastya and the sage requested Vindhya to stay prostrated until he returns. Vindhya complied with this request and sage Agastya never returned to north.

 

The earliest Brahmins to arrive in Andhra were most probably sage Viswamitra’s students and progeny around 1200 BC.  South Indian kings showed respect and patronage for Brahmins and Brahminism since ancient times, e.g., Satavahana dynasty that ruled for five centuries and extended over Andhra and central India, founded by Srimukha (221-198 BC), supported Brahminism and Vedic tradition.16a   One of the most important features of Satavahana dynasty was granting land to Brahmins.16b Sangam era of Chera, Chola and Pandya kings in Deep South also used to grant lands to Brahmins.16c Similarly there have been Brahmin migrations back and forth that continue even today.  Due to these waves of Brahmin migrations, perhaps, we see today various sub-castes and traditions among Brahmins.

 

Most of the Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh belong to smaarta Brahmin group, i.e., the followers of smritis and followers of Adi Sankaracharya.  The smaarta Brahmins follow Apastambasmriti or Apastambasutra (not Manusmriti).  Apasthamba (~600 BC) was one of the earliest lawmakers of south India who lived on the banks of River Godavari.  Boudhayana, Parasara, Yajnvalkya sutras and other laws were also important in the past, e.g., in the courts of Srikrishnadevaraya.16d  Pradhamasakha Niyogi Brahmins (see below) follow Yajnavalkya sutras and Kanva sutras.  The smaarta Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh can be grouped into two major divisions formed about a thousand to about 700 years ago (most probably during Kakatiya rule), Niyogi and Vaidiki.  However, in addition to smaarta Brahmins, there are other Brahmin groups such as Sri Vaishnavas, Madhavas and Aradhyas.  I have grouped them in Vaidiki Brahmin group below for convenience only. Today, many Brahmins don’t know and don’t care about these distinctions.  Intermarriages have been very common among theses groups.  As a matter of fact, Brahmins have been marrying non-Brahmins also.  The following is only of historical importance.

 

i)  Niyogi Brahmins : Niyogi Brahmins are those Brahmins who took up various secular vocations including military activities and gave up religious vocation, especially the priesthood.  Niyogi Brahmins depend and emphasize on modern education.  They were ministers in the courts of kings and feudatories. Many of them were village accountants/clerks, karanams (Andhra) or patwaris (Telangana), until recently. The Niyogis are considered to be eligible for priestly service.  But they will never either accept a religious gift or partake of Sraaddha food (food given to Brahmins duiring the death related rituals). According to Jogendranath Bhattacharya16e, Niyogi name is derived from Yoga, which means religious contemplation or meditation, as opposed to Yaga, which means religious sacrifice. Niyogin in Sanskrit also means “employed” or “appointed” and accordingly, it is probable that they are so-called because they accept secular employment.

 

They were very rich and influential. Legendary Rayamantri belongs to this group.  Niyogi Brahmins include eminent personalities like Veeresalingam Kandukuri, Radhakrishnan Sarvepalli, Venkatgiri Varahagiri, KL Rao, Prakasam Tanguturi, Venkatanarasimharao Pamulaparti (PV), General K. V. Krishnarao etc.   PV was the only Brahmin Chief Minister (1971-72) of Andhra Pradesh and also the only Telugu Brahmin Prime Minister (1991-1996) from South India who ruled the modern Indian Union. Over the past millennium the Niyogi Brahmins are divided further into various groups:

 

a) Pradhamasakha (First Branch) Niyogi Brahmins

b) Aruvela Niyogi

c)  Nandavarika Niyogi

d)  Karanakamma Niyogi

e)  Velanati Niyogi

f)  Telaganya Niyogi

g)  Dravida Niyogi

h)  Karanalu

i)  Sristikaranalu or Sistukaranalu or Sistakaranalu.

j)  Kasalanati Niyogi

k)  Pakanati Niyogi.

 

 

a) Pradhamasakha Niyogi Brahmins: This caste belongs to Sukla (white) Yajurveda School12, while majority of Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh belong to krishna (black) Yajurveda School.  In Maharashtra also there is a group of Brahmins called Pradhamasakha Brahmins.  The Pradhamasakha Niyogi Brahmins16f are further divided into branches such as Vajasaneyulu,  Saivulu, Yajnavalkyulu and Kanvulu.

 

b)  Aruvela Niyogi: Aruvela Niyogi group is the largest Niyogi group.   They belong to Krishna Yajurveda School. According to some, the word “Aruvela” is derived from 6000 (Aruvelu) villages in velanadu area of Andhra Pradesh.  Some believe that Arvelanadu is an alternate name for Velandu and hence the Niyogi Brahmins of that region are Arvela Niyogis. Aruvela Nioyogi Brahmins are political, worldly-wise, and business minded.  They were ministers in the courts of kings and feudatories, and clerks and accountants (Karanalu).  Pamulaparti family belongs to Aruvela Niyogi Brahmins.

 

c)  Nandavarika Niyogi

d)  Karanakamma Niyogi 

e)  Velanati Niyogi

f)  Telaganya Niyogi

g)  Dravida Niyogi

h)  Karanalu 

i)  Sristikaranalu or Sistukaranalu or Sistakaranalu: These are teachers, officials, village accountants (karanam).  They are mostly located in Ganjam and Visakha districts.  Famous poet Krishnamurthy Sistu belongs to this group of Brahmins.

 

j)  Kasalanati Niyogi 

k) Pakanati Niyogi

 

ii) Vaidikulu (Vaidiki Brahmins): Vaidiki Brahmins are those Brahmins who practice mainly religious vocation performing various religious activities, in addition to other mainstream secular vocations like agriculture, cooking, teaching, clerical, management, administration, architecture, science etc.  They perform various religious activities including performing rituals and prayers to please Gods, planets and stars as priests for both Brahmins and non-Brahmins, at homes and in temples.  However, they are not the priests for many Hindu temples in which animal sacrifices are common.  The priests in such Hindu temples are non-Brahmins. Vaidikis  also perform rituals for every occasion in life such as birth, giving solid food to the infant for the first time (annapraasanamu), initiation into education (upanyanamu), female puberty, marriage, consummation of marriage, several stages of pregnancy, death, carrying the dead bodies, cremating the dead, etc.  Many of these rituals are very important and limited to Brahmins, except a few ceremonies like marriage.  They also take up even begging as ascetics.  This ascetic life of Brahmins was the inspiration for the Buddhist ascetics.

 

The majority of Vaidikulu belongs to krishna Yajurveda School.  However, there are Rigvedis, Samavedis etc. also.  Some Brahmins had proficiency in several Vedas, e.g., Dvivedi is one who has proficiency in 2 Vedas, Trivedi in 3 vedas and Chaturvedi in 4 vedas and are known by those titles as such.  However, these titles became family names, even though the family members may not know any Veda at all today.  While Niyogis embraced western education, Vaidikulu had shunned Western education and as a consequence many Vaidikulu are poor and not well educated in Western education, contrary to the notion that Brahmins are rich and well educated.

 

According to Sri Sri Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi MahaSwamiji, the Brahmins who perform priestly duties and other religious activities should follow certain rules:

 

The Brahmin has to wake up at four in the morning and bathe in cold water, rain or shine, warm or cold. Then, without a break, he has to perform one rite after another: sandhyavandana, Brahmayajna, aupasana, puja, vaisvadeva and one of the 21 sacrifices. If you sit before sacrificial fire for four days you will realise how difficult it is with all the heat and smoke. How many are the vows and the fasts the Brahmin has to keep and how many are the ritual baths….

…. Other castes do not have to go through such hardships. A Brahmin cannot eat “cold rice”in the morning like a peasant – he has no “right” to it. The dharmasastras are not created for his convenience or benefit, nor to ensure that he has a comfortable life. He would not have otherwise imposed on himself the performance of so many rites and a life of such rigorous discipline. When he has his daytime meal it will be 1 or 2. (On the day of a sraddha it will be three or four). This is the time the peasant will have his rest after his meal under a tree out in the field where he works. And the Brahmin’s meal, mind you, is as simple as the peasant’s. There is no difference between the humble dwelling of the peasant and that of the Brahmin. Both alike wear cotton. The peasant may save money for the future but not the Brahmin. He has no right either to borrow money or to live in style. …

In the “Yaksa-prasna” of the Mahabharata the simple life of Brahmin is referred to:

pancame’ hani saste va sakam pacati svegrhe

Anrni ca’ pravasi ca sa varicara modate


If daytime is divided into eight parts, the Brahmin may have his food only in the fifth or sixth part after performing all his rites. Before that he has neither any breakfast nor any snacks. And what does he eat? Not any rich food, no sweets like almonds crushed in sweetened milk. “Sakam pacati” – the Brahmin eats leafy vegetables growing on the banks of rivers, such areas being no one’s property. Why is he asked to live by the river side? It is for his frequent baths and for the leafy vegetables growing free there and for which he does not have to beg. He should not borrow money: that is the meaning of the word “anrni”, because if he developed the habit of borrowing he would be tempted to lead a life of luxury. Poverty and non-acquisitiveness (aparigraha) are his ideals. A Brahmin ought not to keep even a blade of grass in excess of his needs. …

The Brahmin must be conversant with the fourteen branches of the Vedic lore. He must be proficient even in Gandharva-veda or music and must be acquainted with agricultural science, construction of houses, etc. At the same time he must give instructions in these subjects to pupils from the appropriate castes. His own vocation is the study of the Vedas and he must have no other source of income. …

If the Brahmin is asked, “Do you know to wield a knife? ” he must be able to answer, “Yes, I know”. If he is asked, “Do you know to draw and paint” again he must (be able to) say, “Yes”. But he cannot wield a knife or become an artist to earn his livelihood. All he can do is to learn these arts and teach others the same according to their caste. He is permitted to receive a daksina to maintain himself and he must be contented with it however small the sum may be. The Brahmin’s specialty is his true vocation is Vedic learning.

… The goal of Vedic works is the happiness of all mankind, indeed the happiness of all the worlds (“Lokah samastah sukino bhavanthu”). The sound of the Vedas creates universal well-being, so too Vedic sacrifices. … Brahmins would be committing a sin if they gave up Vedic rituals and earned money by doing other types of work. 

 

However, it is important to realize that the successive secular governments in the Indian Union are determined to destroy the Hindu religions, in favor of non-Hindu religions.  The modern Indian democracy tends to support Abrahamic religions to appease the rich and powerful global proselytizing religions. The ancient tradition of rulers protecting Brahmins is an obsolete tradition.  Accordingly, it is upon the individual citizens to step up to help and protect Brahmins, temples and their traditions. As the times have changed, even Vaidika Brahmins should earn money to protect the Dharma, despite the traditional ban on earning money. That was one of the main reasons for the existence of Niyogi Brahmins.  However, many Brahmins in India are Naxalites, communists and atheists. Thus, it is incumbent on all Brahmins, who believe in their culture, to rise to the challenge of protecting the Vedik culture.  Otherwise, the extinction of Hindu culture and Brahmin tradition is not far away.  See a review of Brahmin Poverty in Andhra Pradesh: http://www.vepachedu.org/brahmana-tribe.html.

 

There are many subcastes in Vaidiki Brahmins as well:


l) Vaishnava

m) Draavidulu

n) Madhvulu

o) Velanati Vaidikulu

p) Telaganyulu or Telaganadu Vaidikis

q) Venginati Vaidikulu

r) Kasalnati Vaidikulu

s) Muraknati Vaidikulu

u) Adisaivulu

v) Saivulu

 

l) Vaishnava:   Pancharatra and Vaikhanasa Brahmanulu:  Among the Vaishnavities, the strict vegetarians and highly educated people also are given the approximate status of brahmins in Andhra Pradesh. They adhere to either the medieval Tenkalai or Vadakalai and Agaama scriptures. One section follows Vaikhanasa scriptures and other the Pancharaatra, dealing mainly with temple ritual. They run large temple establishments very efficiently. They rose to prominence during Vijayanagar times. They are followers of panchasanskaraekayanayajussakhaand katyayanasutra. These Vaishnavite Brahmins are spread mainly in Karnataka and Andhra, and to some extent in Tamilnadu also.  Vaikhanasa subcaste belongs to this group.  The great Vaishnavite reformers like Ramanujacharya, Ramananda (north India), Madhva (all over south India), Vallabhacharya (found among velanadu, gujarat, rajasthan and UP), Nimbaarka, etc.  Not all the followers of these Vaishnavite reformers are Brahmins.  Some of these Vaishnavites include Acharis, Iyengars and velanadu vaideekulu. These Vaishnavas are also known as Andhra Vaishnava.

    They rely on the doctrines laid down in the medieval scriptures (agamas). Many of the famous temple establishments like Tirupati and Ahobilam are run per vaishnavite agamic canons. The big hearted Raamanuja fought against caste distinctions and gathered under his doctrine, people from all walks of life and caste and religion and occupation and said henceforth they shall be known as one community. Thus he created the Iyengar community, and told them to always work for reform of society. Some of the earlier vaishnava and bhagaavata adherents also merged into the iyengars. Later there was a large immigration of Ramaanandi vaishnavas from north India and another large migration from Gujarat. While they too merged, slight differences arose.

The great Raamanuja specifically included among his followers sc’s, tribals, immigrant foreign soldiers, arabs and turks, destitutes women, jains, etc. Raamanuja’s efforts are glossed over by modern  pseudo-secular writersRamanuja and his later disciples running the movement, certainly saw to it that there was no more exclusivism of caste groups inside the community. All the same it appears they made sure that the brightest were selected as iyengars, evangelizers of vaishnavism, without any regard to their former caste or other origins. It is however true, after some centuries this reformist movement became just another caste, not quite sure about its place in the hierarchy.

The immense and lasting influence of Raamanuja is probably not realised by many Indians. Here are some direct and indirect descendants of his thought: —the entire actual live vaishnava tradition of today, and including offshoots and modifications and the movements heavily influenced like those of Raamananda Kabir Ravidas Nanak Tulsidas Vallabhacharya Nimbaarka Madhvacharya Raghavendra Chaitanya Ramdas. …even recent reformers like Phule and isckon and others

One characteristic method used by the gurus was community dinners, where everybody sat together without distinction. This went a long way towards reduction of old discriminations. As a consequence there are expert cooks who easily handle very large scale cooking among them. Old tribal cult spots and medieval pilgrimage centers like the Varaaha shrine at Tirupati were modernised, along with the new scriptures and new rituals invented by Ramanujacharya to foster a cooperative spirit. He also kept in mind the weaning away of simple tribal people from blood sacrifices. It seems many jains also merged with vaishnavites, just like in an earlier era buddhists shifted to various sects of saivism. His followers also took up the spread of education, whose effect which lasts to this day. The vaishnavite communities in Andhra Pradesh have a marked bent towards education, literature and performing arts like music and dance.

The Madhvaas date from the recent reform activities of Madhvacharya (somewhere in the 12th century) also of the vaishnava sampradaya , and they were prominent in the last days of Vijayanagar (1500’s) . A famous guru of the line was Raghavendraswami. (They are found all over karnataka, south Maharashtra, Tamilnadu as well as Andhra). Their roots include a strong marathi one, and a north Indian connection as well.
(http://netinfo.hypermart.net/reformist.htm)

m) Draavidulu:  Draavids, who seem to be north Indian Brahmins who arrived in coastal Andhra. Dravidas are further divided into subcastes like Aaraamadravidulu, Perurudravidulu, Ryalidravidulu, Divili Brahmins, Pudurudravidulu, Tummagunta Brahmins etc based on the locations they settled.  Some of these Dravida Brahmins belong to Rigveda school and some belong to Krishnayajurveda school.  The Telangana Vaidiki Brahmin caste to which Goutamiputra Satakarni beloged to is a Dravida Brahmin caste (?). This group belongs to Rigveda school.  For more onDravida Brahmins click here.

 

n) Madhvulu:  Madhvas are the followers of Sri Madhvacharya, (a k. a. srimad Anandateertha), the 13th century saint-philosopher of Karnataka, India (see also http://www.madhva.org and http://www.madhva.net). They were prominent in the last days of Vijayanagar (1500’s).  Raghavendraswami was a famous guru of this caste. They are found all over Karnataka, south Maharashtra, Tamilnadu and Andhra and have very strong roots in Maharashtra and the north.

 

o) Velanati Vaidikulu16e: The Velnadus are most numerous class of Vaidiki Brahmins. Vallabhachari, who in the 15th century attained great success as prophet, and whose descendants are worshipped almost as gods still Rajputana, Gujarat and Maharashtra was a member of this caste.  The Velnadus are most numerous in the Godavari and Krishna districts.  Colonies of this caste are found in the erstwhile Mysore State (Karnataka), except Kadur.

p) Telaganyulu or Telaganadu Vaidikis:  The Telaganya Vaidikis are as numerous as the Velnadus and found mostly in Telangana, chiefly in the  Northeaster part of erstwhile Hyderabad Kingdom.

q) Venginati Vaidikulu: The Venginadus are chiefly found in the districts of Godavari and Vizianagaram, formerly known as the Vengi Country.

r) Kaasalnati Vaidikulu: The Kasalanadu derive their name from Kosala, the ancient name of Oude, from where they migrated to Kalinga Country, where they are found now.

s) Muraknati Vaidikulu: Murakanati Vaidikis are found mostly in the country sounth of the River Krishna.  They are numerous in Karnataka.

t) Gouda Brahmins are teachers and priests. They belong to Sukla Yajurveda and Kanva madhyandina sakha and have the family names such as Joshi, Ojjhulu etc.

u) Adisaivulu: They belong to Krishna Yajurveda school.  These Saiva Brahmins are further devided into several castes such as Kanchisaivulu, Antarvedisaivulu, Balajipetasaivulu, Tiruvalngadusivulu, Sakteya Brahmins etc.

v) Saivulu: The Saivite Brahmins follow the Saiva aagamas. However, they study Vedas also and belong to Krishna Yajurveda school.  One of the sects of these saivite Brahmins is called Aradhyas, related to Panditaradhyas of Sivakaviyugamu (Era of Saiva poets) of 12th century. They generally run Saiva and Shakti shrines, often very large, and famous ones like Kalesvaram, Vemulavada, Srisailam, Kalahasti, etc. They have a link to Kashmir Saivism, Varanasi and Jyotirlinga shrines all over India like Kedarnath. The rituals they follow are different from the smaartas.  Aradhyas are in fact semiconverted Lingayats.  They following Basava and attach great importance to Linga worship.  However, they adhere to Brahminism, recite Gayatri prayers and marry Smaarta Brahmins.  Although Lingayat Saiva religion attempted to dismatle the tribal differences, the Lingayats adhere to their original castes naturally.  Thus Aradhyas remain designated to be Brahmins, just like other castes in Lingayat religion (followers of Basava) today, e.g., various Jangamas.

 

2) Chitpavana Brahmins: Konkanastha Brahmins17

Chitpavan brahmins are basically from Konkan, the coastal belt of western Maharashtra. Since they are from Konkan they are known as Konkanastha. Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhatt as his Peshwa or Prime Minister. It was the first time a person from Konkan appointed to an important post in Deccan.  Eventually, many people from Konkan migrated to join the service of Marattha kingdom.  Chitpavan Brahmin folks are easily recognised by the certain characteristics suc as fair skin, light coloured eyes (blue, green or grey), sharp nose, distinct jawline, and some have light or blonde hair.

 

3) Daivajna Brahmins
4) Deshastha Brahmins

5) Dhima Brahmins The Brahmins of Haryana14 are divided into four main groups: Gaurs, Saraswats, Khandelwals and Dhima.  The Khandelwals and Dhima came into this region after Saraswats and Gaurs, most probably from neighboring Rajasthan. The Brahmins themselves had a ranking system between them with the Gaurs being on the top followed by the Saraswats, the Khandelwals and the Dhima. The Gaurs used to consider themselves to be superior to the other Brahmins and neither ate, drank nor intermarried with them.

 

6) Gaur Brahmins

The Gaurs of Haryana claim that they come to Haryana originally from Bengal. It is believed they came as Purohitas along with various immigrant farming tribes. The Brahmins themselves had a ranking system between them with the Gaurs being on the top followed by the Saraswats, the Khandelwals and the Dhima. The Gaurs used to consider themselves to be superior to the other Brahmins and neither ate, drank nor intermarried with them.

 

7) Gouda Saraswat Brahmins 

 

8) The Havyakas18

It is believed that the Kadamba kingdom had many Kshatriyas and Havyakas were brought in to perform the royal rituals and the related functions of the empirical government. Thus the first few families were settled in Banavasi, the beautiful capital of the Kadambas and the place so adored by Pampa. Since the very purpose of bringing these Brahmin families was to perform Havana (Havya) and Homa (Gavya), they were aptly named as Havyaga or Haveega, which has transcended to the present day “Havika” or “Havyaka.” This functionality of naming even extended to the specific role played by families in the whole gamut of rituals. Thus originated the seven family names given by Raja Mayooravarma. The Havyakas are the only Brahmins who derive their surnames from the job they perform rather than by their origin (e.g., Kota, Shivalli) or by the preacher (e.g., Madhva) or by God worship (e.g., Shivite, Vaishnavite). Thus came the names “Hegade (Hegde)” for the head of the village who sponsors the ritualistic activities, “Dixit” for one who is the head of the Yajna, “Bhat”, who actually performs the rituals and so on.

 

9) Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins
10) Iyer19The earliest group of Brahmins to come to Tamil Nadu is largely known as Gurukuls. They have been here from very ancient times and were primarily invited to be temple priests in the early Chola period. Many of them were great Vedic scholars. They conducted the coronation of the kings and acted as their spiritual advisors and Gurus. They also acted as the Gurus to the villages and the towns where the temples were located. They advised people on various matters including fixing of auspicious time for commencing important ventures. Many of them were the great exponents of Vedic Astrology and Ayurvedic Medicine. They are supposed to be followers of Baudhyana sutra and are divided as ‘Kanchipuram’, ‘Tiruvalangadu’ and ‘Thirukazhakundram’ Gurukuls. It is interesting that all the three are the names of ancient towns and temples around Kanchipuram. This clearly indicates that the earliest migration was to Kanchipuram. Kanchipuram is one of the two most ancient cities of India, the other being Varanasi (Kashi). The linkage between the Varanasi (Kashi) and Kanchi has existed from earliest times and has been facilitating the migration of priests between the North and the South. It is possible that Kanchipuram, Tiruvangadu and Tirukalikundram were the first destinations for the Gurukuls who arrived. They stayed and worked there till they were redeployed to other interior temples and towns.

 

11) Kandavara Brahmins
12) Karade Brahmins
13) Karhada Brahmins
14) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins
15) Kayastha Brahmins
16) Khandelwal Brahmins 
The Brahmins of Haryana14 are divided into four main groups: Gaurs, Saraswats, Khandelwals and Dhima.  The Khandelwals came into this region after Saraswats and Gaurs, most probably from neighboring Rajasthan.

 

17) Konkanastha Brahmins
18) Kota Brahmins
19) Koteshwara Brahmins
20) Nagar Brahmins
21) Namboothiri Brahmins
22) Padia Brahmins
23) Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins
24) Saklapuri Brahmins
25) Sanketi Brahmins
26) Saraswat Brahmins 
        a) The Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins20

The Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins represent a relatively small group of Brahmins who firmly established their identity as a unified group in the year 1708. The history of migration of their ancestors from Kashmir to a variety of places all over the country of India serves to demonstrate how their strong religious and cultural beliefs developed into the present century. Today, members of this group are in Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Tamilnadu.


     b) Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmins or Kashmiri Pandits21

According to accepted traditions in the rest of the country, Kashmiri Brahmins are believed to be a branch of the Saraswat Brahmins who were so called because they were  believed to have settled along the course of an ancient river in the North-West Indian Continet (Indo-Pak region) called Saraswati. When this river dried up, these Brahmins migrated. A large section of this uprooted community was settled in the Western Konkan coast of the present state of Maharashtra. Others moved further North into the Valley of Kashmir. The first Prime Minister of the Indian Union, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, belongs to the Pandit community.  The Nehru dynasty ruled the Union for almost half a century.  Yet, Kashmiri Pandits are subjected to a genocide, which under UN resolution, means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

 

(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (Article 2 of 
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocideadopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the U.N. General Assembly on 9 December 1948. Entry into force: 12 January 1951.U.N.T.S. No. 1021, vol. 78 (1951), p. 277)

          Genocide in Kashmir22

  • 400,000 Kashmiri Pandits, constituting 99% of the total population of Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley, were forcibly pushed out of the Valley by Muslim terrorists, trained in Pakistan, since the end of 1989. They have been forced to live the life of exiles in their own country, outside their homeland, by unleashing a systematic campaign of terror, murder, loot and arson.
  • Genocide of Kashmiri Pandits has reached its climax with Muslim terrorism succeeding in ‘CLEANSING’ the valley of this ancient ethno-religious community.
  • With the completion of 11th year of their forced exile, this peace loving, culturally rich community with a history of more than 5000 years, is fighting a grim battle to save itself from becoming extinct as a distinct race and culture.

        Main Refugee Camp Sites in Jammu:  Muthi Camp, Transport Nagar, Purkhoo Camp, Stadium Camp,  Jhiri Camp,  Nagrota Camp,  Mishriwala Camp,  and Battalbalian Camp, Udhampur

        Main Camp Sites in Delhi:  Nandnagri, Sultanpuri, Kailash Colony, Maviya Nagar, South Extension, Palika Dham, Lajpat Nagar,Aliganj, Bapu Dham, Amar Colony, Mangol Puri, Patel Nagar, Sultanpuri, Moti Nagar and Begampura.
(See also: 
http://www.kashmir-information.com/Atrocities/index.html)

 

 c) Rajapur/Balawalikar Saraswat Brahmanas22

Rajapur/Balawalikar Saraswat Brahmanas,as they are known, belong to the “Pancha (five) Gauda Brahmana” groups or “Gaudadi Panchakas”.  The Saraswats of all subsects of today are said to have originated from the Saraswath region, from the banks of river Saraswati. In Rigveda, references to river Saraswati has been frequently made in the shlokas praising the river as the most mighty river and describe her as “limitless, undeviating, shining and swift moving”. But the Saraswati vanished from the region.

 

d) Haryana Saraswat Brahmins

The Saraswats of Haryana are original settlers of this region, taking their name from the Saraswati river.

 

27) Shivalli Brahmins
28) Smarta Brahmins
29) Sthanika Brahmins

30) Tuluva Brahmins23: The ancient Tulu nadu extended from Gokarna in the north, all along coastal Karnataka up to Kasargod in the south. This included both coastal Uttara Kannada district as well as all of Dakshina Kannada district. Over many centuries the principal language of Tulu nadu was Tulu. Today Tulu is spoken only south of River Kalyanpur in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka. This is the heartland of Tulu nadu today. While Udupi is the religious center of Tulu nadu, Mangalore is the commercial hub. Innumerable smaller towns and villages comprise of a green landscape within the mountainous range of the Western Ghats as well as along the coastal Karnataka with access to Arabian Sea. Here Tulu language, one of the five main Dravidian languages of the South, with its extinct script is spoken. For historical purposes the regions settled by Brahmins are three in number. Haige or Haive (Uttara Kannada), Taulava (Dakshina Kannada) and Kerala.

 

31)Vaishnava Brahmins

 

(This page is under development and will be updated as and when more information is available. If you have any suggestions or information please email it to the editor)

 



Notes and References

    1Tribe (Lat., tribus: the tripartite division of Romans into Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans), a social group bound by common ancestry and ties of consanguinity and affinity; a common language and territory; and characterized by a political and economic organization intermediate between small, family-based bands, and larger chiefdoms. Some anthropologists believe that tribes developed when more stable and increased economic productivity, brought on by the domestication of plants and animals, allowed more people to live together in a smaller area. A tribe may consist of several villages, which may be crosscut by clans, age grade associations, and secret societies; each of these crosscutting institutions may, at different times and in different ways, perform economic, political, legal, and religious functions. Tribes are popularly believed to be close-knit and parochial, but some anthropologists now argue that they are flexibly defined communities of convenience.

 

1b Japan: Our Japanese friend tells that there are 4 castes (sections) in Japanese society.  It is called Shi – Nou – Kou – Chou system.

1. Byshi (Samurai) = Kings and Soldiers

2. Noumin = Farmers etc. (large section)

3. Kou = Artisans and Workers

4. Choumin = Merchants

 

A Japanese Male can never change his caste. But, a woman can climb up by marrying a man of upper caste. But, she can be only a 2nd wife of upper caste. May be her children are considered as upper caste, but some difference in minds will be there.

 

Those who work in Temples are not included in any of these. They are called Bouzu. The bouzus can not marry. They adopt people from other castes (not Samurai in general) and train as Bouzus.

 

There are UNTOUCHABLES, called Era Hina. This community is called BARAKU. These people are not considered as HUMAN BEINGS. They live far from the society.  It seems about, nearly, 150-200 years back, American army captain- Pierre went to Japan.  At that time, Japan was closed to outside world by the Emperor for the fear that others spoil their society. But, when American captain went there, the Emperor was not given any choice. He had to obey or fight. So, American army entered and they forced the Emperor to make some system like in UK. King, his family, some Lords as higher section, rest of the society as Lower section. This existed till 2nd world war after which due to American pressure again, the present system came into existence. Source: A friend from Japan.

.

 

2According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, a tribe is a social group consisting of people of the same race who have the same beliefs, customs, language etc. and usually live in one particular area ruled by a chief.  Illustrated Oxford Dictionary defines a tribe as a group of (especially primitive) families or communities, linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, and usually having a common culture and dialect, and a recognized leader.  Webster’s dictionary defines a tribe as a system of social organization comprising several local village bands, districts, lineages, or other groups and sharing a common ancestry, culture, language, and name.  It is also a group of persons sharing a common occupation, interest, or habit. However, a tribe means, in general, a group having marital social relationship within the group and  won’t allow any matrimonial relationship outside the tribe, e.g. Marriage between a Yeruka and a Lambada or other tribe is not common.

 

Caste (Fr, Pg, Sp, race, breed, lineage, chaste, stock etc.) is a closed group whose members preferred a particular occupation and a degree of social participation. Marriage outside the caste is prohibited. A specialized labor group may operate as a caste within a society otherwise free of such distinctions (e.g., the ironsmiths in parts of Africa).

 

According to Webster’s unabridged dictionary a caste is a race, stock, or breed of men or animals; one of the heriditary classes; a system of social stratification more rigid than class and characterized by hereditary  status, endogamy, and social barriers rigidly sanctioned by custom, law or religion; a form of polymorphic social insects that carries out a particular function in the colony.

 

The Longman Dictionary defines a caste as one of the fixed and unchangeable social classes into which people are born in India.  Oxford dictionary defines caste as any of the Hindu hereditary classes, distinguished by relative degree of purity and pollution (of blood), whose members are socially equal with one another and often follow the same occupation.   A caste, according to Webster’s New Riverside University Dictionary, is one of the four major hereditary classes of Hindu society, each caste is distinctly separated from others by restrictions placed on occupation and marriage.  Apparently, the editors of these dictionaries have no idea of how many thousands of castes are in the Indian continent.  Further, one has to wonder why the same kind of group elsewhere in the world is a tribe and in India is a caste.  Whatever may be the reason, caste and tribe are distinguished in India. The Sanskrit words like varna, kul, jati etc. are very much confused and as a result words like class, caste and tribe are misinterpreted by the world.

 

There is another important aspect to this caste.  Even though, castes or tribes are not unique to India, caste was invented by Western indologists and Western influenced Indian leftist intellectuals to define the bewildering diversity of the ancient culture.  During the colonial and Muslim period it served the interests of foreign rulers to diminish Indian society by instilling a sense of shame and inferiority.  In fact, castes are found in the history of every nation in this world.  Even today, we find such divisions in the most advanced countries like the United States of America. However, the Western and leftist Indian intellectuals interpret Sanskrit scriptures to fit their agendas and continue to cling on to those interpretations even when they don’t make any sense.

 

The so-called caste system, a complex network of interdependent yet separated, heriditary, endogamous, occupationally specialized, and hierarchically ordered social groups is incomprehensible to leftists and Westerners.  Caste as an institution transcends the religion, just like various tribes in Islam, e.g. Kurds, Arabs, Pashtoons, Mohajirs etc.  Brahmins, Muslims, Jains, Buddhists, Parsis, Sikhs, Vaishnavites, Shaivites, Veera Shaivites, Shaktites, Christians, Secular humanists, and others in India are all subject to the overarching dictates of caste.  Attempts to break the caste system were made time and again from the days of Lord Buddha. Religions like Buddhism, Veera Shaivism, Vaishnavism etc., succeeded momentarily, but the caste always resurrected itself with vengeance, because it is a natural phnomenon. It happens in Christianity and Islam also.  Islam not only has tribes like Kurds, Arabs, Pashtoons, Mohajirs, but also many so-called Hindu castes. Christinaity is no different either, e.g., Reddi Chrisitans, Kamma Christians, Mala Christians, Madiga Christians, Kuruma Christians etc.

There is no universal system of caste throughout India.  The belief that the Vedic varnashrama dharma was the “caste system in embryo,” is flawed. If not, the tribes of Afghanistan should also be considered originated from this class system, because Afghanistan was Hindu/Buddhist and didn’t know Islam until 700 AD.  For that matter, the Hutus and Tutsis of Burundi should also be a result of Vedic hypothetical class system. The caste system is different from the ideal vedik varna class system.  Varna is hypothetical and is a class, whereas caste is real and plays a major role. Varna (the class) allows movement of people from one class to the other, while tribe or caste does not. Thus, it is preposterous to say the vedic hypothesis of class is same as caste.

According to Vedas, in any society in general, there are four underlying varnas (colors or divisions or groups), the four groups being, intellectuals and priests (Brahmin varna), rulers and warriors (Kshatriya varna), agriculturists and business persons (Vaishya varna), and other workers (Shudra varna).  Without these four classes there is no society in this world.  Thus, if the society is the God, his/her head is the intellectuals and priests, shoulders are the warriors and military, the trunk is the business and agricultural community and finally the legs are the workers who fulfil the basic needs of the society starting from the work in agricultural fields to the temple construction, without which society cannot go forward.


“Giving a human form to the society, we may say priests and teachers are its expressive face, rulers and warriors its protective arms, traders and farmers its supporting thighs and servants and labourers its transporting feet. To conceive of the world in the image of man, we may say the sun and moo are its eyes and mind, water and fire its mouth, air its breath, sky its head, earth its feet, and the ethereal space its body. This world is itself a continuing sacrifice, in which we see all matter and energy evolving into new forms by consuming whatever existed before.”
 Purusha Sukta: (The Hymn of God); Rigveda.

Anybody can become a Brahmin varna (intellectual group), but one has to be born into Brahmin caste to be a Brahmin caste. If there is a confusion, it is because the word Brahmin has several meanings including the ultimate God, earthly God, intellectual, teacher, priest, Brahmin tribe/caste.

The castes in Andhra Pradesh can be divided into two distinct categories. Brahmin, Komati, Reddy, Kamma, Velama, Kapu, Nayudu, Relli, Mala, Madiga, Yeraka, Yanadi etc., castes are based on their tribal, cultural and religious differences, while the castes like Chakali (washerman), Kummari (potter), Kammari (smith), Kamsali (goldsmith), Mangali (barber) etc are based on their duties in addition to the above differences.  With a few exceptions like the Brahmin caste, all these castes are uniquely localized in Andhra Pradesh.  Each caste has a deity and distinct social formalities. The interaction between various castes is difficult because of these religious, cultural and tribal considerations. (Visit for more on caste:http://www.vepachedu.org/caste.htm).

3Conversions and adoption are such mechanisms by which a tribal identity of the offspring may be changed. However, one has to remember that changing the labels cannot change genes.  Only inter-caste marriage combined with conversion would result in genetic change as well.  In the past, inter-caste marriage had resulted in new castes, as conversion was not an option. Indian castes, just like any other tribes, do not appreciate conversion to another tribe or caste, as most of them are non-proselytizing and consider their customs superior to any other customs and caste practices.

 

Brahmins are also non-proselytizing and do not appreciate tribal-caste conversion in general. However, it may be inevitable when faced with proselytizing forces such as Christianity and Islam, and when there is a need for increasing the numbers in a particular community. Also, in a cosmopolitan civilized world, where there cannot be restrictions on one’s choice of the spouse, conversion is the best compromise.  Muslims and Christians follow this method very strictly as a method of increasing their fold.  Usually, anyone who marries a Muslim must convert to Islam.

 

In the past, however, through rigorous courses and tests some non-Brahmins became Rishis, e.g., Kings like Viswamitra, Vishnuvardhana, Radheerga, Veerahavya etc. became Rishis and established their own Vedik schools and new Brahmin branches. (Reference: “Andhra Viprula Gotramulu, Indla Perlu, Sakhalu,” by Emmesroy Sastri, Gollapudi Veeraswami Son, Sri Seetarama Book Depot, Rajamandri).

 

4 “The Risilient Brahmin,” The Week, November 10, 2002,

http://www.gnxp.com/MT2/archives/000760.html.

 

5 The Sanskrit is an ancient language that became irrelvant to Indians in general, and Brahmins in particular.  It is the language of Brahmins.  However, whenever, Brahmins migrated to lands, they adopted to the local language and customs and adopted local Gods, yet maintained their Sanskrit language, the Vedas, traditions and culture.  Unfortunately, today’s Brahmin lost this ability to keep the Sanskrit language and the Vedas due to various reasons.

6Many words in Sanskrit have many meanings, e.g., Hari means God, Vishnu, Indra, Yama, the sun, the moon, a monkey, a lion, an eagle, a horse, a frog, a parrot, air, wind, a ray of light, yellow color, the best, etc.

 

7With hidden agendas and/or without proper knowledge of Sanskrit, many interpreters distort the Sanskrit texts.

 

8Brahmanism is an ancient non-proselytizing religion and forms the basis for many Indian religions such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Buddhism, Jainism etc., to a large extent.

 

9A religion is a belief in and reverence for a supernatural power accepted as the creator and governor of the universe and having a certain organization and tradition in worshipping such Supreme Being.  Brahmins believe in such Supreme Being and have a unique way of worshipping with certain rituals, which are different from that of the rest of the world.  However, Brahmins have embraced the local religions wherever they migrated and yet maintained their identity and basic Vedic culture.

 

10 Hinduism is not a religion, but a way of life. It includes traditions, culture, religions and othe  practices of various peoples localised in the Indian Continent. Hinduism includes communists, atheists, capitalists and numerous Indian religions.  However, the so-called experts also tell us that there is a religion called Hinduism.  For example, the Longman Dictionary says, Hinduism is the main religion of India, which includes belief in destiny and reincarnation, while the Oxford Dictionary says Hinduism is the main religious and social system of India, including the belief in reincarnation and the worship of several gods.  However, there are many non-Inidan religions in this world that believe in destiny and reincarnation.  Some say that rather than a single doctrine or a single system of worship, Hinduism is a broad confluence of ideas and attitudes.  Well, of course, then one has to wonder why the ideas and attitudes from Middles East, such as,  Islam, Christianity and Judaism, are not included in it!

 

However, historically, there was never such a thing as Hinduism in the Indian Continent.  It is a recent creation by the outsiders to define the myriad religions and cultures that exist in the Indian Continent. Whatever may be the history, the fact is that now there is so-called Hinduism in the minds of people, who cannot comprehend the diversity of the Indian Continent and have no intention of even attempting to understand it.  So, even the Brahmin Gurus and Pandits and other so-called Hindus have come to accept the name-the Hinduism, given to them by the outsiders, while denouncing and redefining it again and again.

 

In an attempt to define Hinduism that exists in India today, the Constitution Bench in Sastri Yajnapurushadasji and Others Vs. Muldas Bhudardas Vaishya and Another, 1996 (3) SCR 242 held: “Then we think of the Hindu religion, we find it difficult, if not impossible to define Hindu religion or even adequately describe it. Unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one God: it does not subscribe to any one dogma: it does not believe in any one philosophic concept: it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.”  The Supreme Court further opined “Hinduism had originally a territorial and not a cradle significance. It implied residence in a well-defined geographical area. Aboriginal tribes, savage and half-civilized people, the cultured Dravidians and the Vedic Aryans were all Hindus as they were the sons of the same mother. The Hindu thinkers reckoned with the striking fact that the men and women dwelling in India belonged to different communities, worshipped different gods, and practised different rites.”  Thus Hinduism is a group of religions.

 

A story from Panchatantra illustrates the present confusion perfectly.  Once there was a Brahmin who used to live on alms provided by generous villagers.  One day he was offered a calf by a neighboring villager.  The Brahmin was happy and was carrying the calf home.  Three cheats saw the Brahmin carrying the calf and thought that it would make a nice meal for them, while it would be useless to the vegetarian Brahmin. They came up with a plan to cheat the poor Brahmin. One after the other all three pass by the Brahmin and tell him that he was carrying a goat, donkey and a dead pig, respectively.   Although the Brahmin didn’t believe initially, he came to a conclusion that whatever he was carrying was certainly not a calf and it must be demon because it was appearing to various people as various things.  So, he became scared and abandoned the calf.  The three cheats happily had a nice meal of the calf.  This story tells us that persistent misinterpretation gets credibility over a period of time. And so, now we have Hinduism and everything in India is Hinduism and the tribes and castes in India are due to the Hindu philosophy, contrary to the reality and the interpretation of the Supreme Court. Life is simple that way, otherwise the diversity in India is bewildering.

 

This Western and leftist definition of Hinduism resulted in attribution of Brahmin customs, traditions, and culture to non-Brahmins.   As a result, non-Brahmins like Iliah Kanche, a Kuruma Christian, who had developed a bitter hatred against Brahmins declared themselves as non-Hindus.  Many other Hindu religions also declared themselves as separate from Hinduism, e.g., Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism etc.

 

This Western definition of Hinduism as a single religion, contrary to the above Supreme Court definition, by the Western and leftist Indian intellectuals has resulted, unfortunately, in another SC judgement of far-reaching consequences for Brahmin religion.  The Supreme Court has ruled that Brahmins do not have monopoly over performing puja in a temple where Brahmins have been priests for centuries and said a non-Brahmin, properly trained and well-versed in the rituals, could be appointed as a priest. In this decision, the SC has trampled on the freedom of religion enshrined in the constitution as applied to Brahmins. The Brahmins and non-Brahmins are considered part of a single religion called Hinduism and, thereby, a non-Brahmin can take over the temples of Brahmins. This decision was delivered by a Bench comprising Justice S. Rajendra Babu and Justice Doraiswamy Raju, while upholding the appointment of a non-Brahmin as a priest in Kongorpilly Neerikode Siva Temple at Alangad village in Ernakulam, Kerala.  The government of India and the Judiciary not only interfere in the religions of Hindus and Hindu institutions, but also actively attempt to destroy the Hindu religions such as Brahminism, while supporting and allowing the growth of Western religions such as Islam and Christianity and those religions that declared to be separate from Hinduism, by all means.  This kind of interference by the government would not be tolerated anywhere in the world, including India.  It is impossible to have a Kurdish priest in a Turkish mosque or a Catholic priest in a Serbian church or a Muslim in Christian Church; and even the most secular/communist government in the world would not impose such an absurd decision, except in India and that too with regard to Brahmins only.

 

11Mayne’s Treatise on Hindu Law and Usage, 14th Edition, 14th edition, pp. 1-45.

Pandurang Vaman Kane, History of Dharmasastra (ancient and mediæval religious and civil law in India) — 2d ed. —  Poona : Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. — (Government oriental series. Class B ; no. 6.). — Vol II, Part I. — 1974. — S. 483 -486.

 

12Once upon a time, an assembly of Brahmins was arranged in presence of Lord Brahma. All the Brahmin teachers and professors were invited. It was declared that who ever among the invited fails to attend the Brahmin assembly would be considered to have committed the sin of murder of a Brahmin (Brahmahatya). For some unavoidable circumstances, Professor Vaisampayana could not attend this meeting and acquired the sin of Brahmahatya. He assembled all his disciples and requested them to share the burden of the sin of murder. One of his disciples was Yajnavalkya. He was a great intellectual and was very powerful due to his knowledge. He came forward and suggested that he would take all the sin and manage it with his powers and requested Vaisampayana to let go other disciples. Vaisampayana was enraged at this request. He considered this request as arrogance of Yagnavalkya and completely out of line. Consequently, he ordered Yajnavalkya to give up all the learning that he learned from Vaisampayana and leave his school immediately. Yajnavalkya followed the orders of the professor and discarded all the learning, which immediately evaporated into the solar dimension. And he became poorer in his knowledge and hence in powers and luster.

 

Yajnavalkya went to the Sun God and requested the Sun to teach him Yajurveda. The Sun God agreed to teach and asked him to follow him in the form a horse during his continuous travel across the skies and learn. Thus Yajnavlakya became a Vajasaneya, one who learned as a horse and a branch formed called Vajasaneya sakha. This Yajurveda learned by Yajnavlkya as a horse from the Sun God is called SuklaYajurveda and the earlier one that was learned from Vaismpayana was Krishna Yajurveda.

 

According to Vedas, when Yajnavalkya discarded the knowledge of Vedas, other disciples absorbed it like Tittiri birds and hence the branch that came from those disciples is called Tittiriya sakha.

 

Source: Vayaupuranamu in “Ashtadasapuranamulu,” by Venkataramasastri Kompella, Rohini Publications, Rajamandri, pp. 308-309.

 

13In Sanskrit, gotram means family, race, lineage, a mountain, a cow-pen and so on!

 

14http://www.haryana-online.com/People/brahmins.htm

 

15http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/people/brahmins/list.htm

 

16 “Andhra Viprula Gotramulu, Indla Perlu, Sakhalu,” by Emmesroy Sastri, Gollapudi Veeraswami Son, Sri Seetarama Book Depot, Rajamandri.

16a History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Rao PR, pp.viii and 8-22

 

16b History of India, Herman Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, p. 102

 

16c History of India, Herman Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, p. 104

 

16d History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Rao PR, pp.viii and 8-22

 

16e “Hindu Castes and Sects,” Jogendranath Bhattacharya, 1896.

 

16f The Pradhamasakha Niyogi Brahmins: Some family names that belong to Pradhamasakha Niyogi are: Adaalatu, Adukuri, Ainaparti, Ainamprolu, Akhandam, Alapattu, Aleti, Alladi, Ambadasu , Ambarukhana, Anantavarapu, Andukuru, Anipeddi, Annavarpu, Anumarlapudi, Attota, Ayinambrolu, Ayinpurapu, Challa, Chittem, Edlapalli,  Eedupalli, Errapatruni, , Gangaravula, Gampa, Gatraju, Gaddapalli, Ganapatiraju, Gajulapalli, Gadicharla, Gorijavolu, Kanchikacharala, Kanchugantala,Kathari, Kanakabhattula, Kavulu, Kavuluri, Kakarlapudi, Kakarlamudi, Kamaraju, Karinapati, Kuppila, Khandaladinne, Regadamilli, Srikaram, Sridhara, Sandepudi, Sampatam, Sambaraju, Sattenapalli, Satram, Sannikandlapadu, Samudram, Saripalli, Savidi, Somaasi, Sthaanam, Tammera, Udayagiri, Ullaganti, Uppala, Urakaranam, Uta, Uttaralingamakuntla, Vaddiraju, Vadduri, Vadlamudi, Vaduri, Vahi, Vallambhatla, Valluri, Vanam, Vangipurapu, Vankeswarapu, Varagani, Varahagiri, Vareswaram, Varkhola, Vasa, Velagapudi, Vepachedu, Vissamraju, Vonkamamidi etc.  Most of these families belong to “Kanva” or “Kanveeya” branch of Pradhamasakha.  Many of these family names are unique to Pradhamasakha, and you may not find the same names in any other Brahmin caste, but some family names are found in various other Brahmin groups as well.  Also, some of these family names may be found in non-Brahmin castes due to the fact that many of the family names are derived from the village names and/or due to inter-caste-mixing.

 

17http://www.kokanastha.com/index.htm


18http://www.chembio.niu.edu/hosmane/roots.html

 

19http://www.chennaionline.com/columns/DownMemoryLane/diary169.asp


20http://culture.konkani.com/Historical/15_Chitrapur_Saraswa.htm

 

21http://www.hindunet.org/srh_home/1996_9/msg00393.html

 

22http://www.rsbnet.com/new/history.html

 

23http://www.boloji.com/places/0019.htm

 

Other sources on the web:

Battle of Masses Vs Classy Elite


THE ELITIST VERSUS THE CHAIWALA – BY VIJAY DUTT

The gaddi of the prime minister seems somewhat hedged for the BJP’s prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi, because everyone the status quoists, the media, leaders of all “secular” parties, leftists, “secularists”, the elites and a powerful lobby within his party are all arraigned against him. Its Modi vs. The Rest. The only positive factor in his favour is the unprecedented wave blowing across the country in his favour. His other advantage is that he belongs to the lowest class of OBCs.

All the biases, prejudices, caste and religious considerations are swept away by the wave. In that case the way to the gaddi would be cleared for Modi. The other factor in his favour is the unprecedented desire especially among over 65 per cent youth to see an authoritative leader presiding over the country’s affairs rather than a muddled leader who is indecisive leading to a policy paralysis. This youth, a large number of whom flock his rallies, do not care about 2002. The India Today survey found that 86 per cent wanted a decisive and dominant leader.

But what if the wave abates by the time of the election next year? Modi would have to contend with many hurdles, including the tough resistance from the elite, who are although in minimal percentage, ensconced firmly in power. Tavleen Singh did write about the Lutyen Club that jealously guards its membership and occupation of the best part of Delhi. Only elite are eligible to its membership. How can a Chaiwala dare challenge the elite’s monopoly?

The Modi’s unprecedented wave has, ironically, caused much loathing, fear and heartburn. But the basic question is, will this wave sweep Narendra Modi to the “Gaddi” of the Prime Minister or give him a roller coaster ride to nowhere.

One can see the reflection of the resistance of the elite in the TV English Channels and the comments of panellists during discussions. The attitude of a nominated MP in the Rajya Sabha, who studied at St. Stephens and abroad shows what they think of the non-St. Stephenians and those who have studied in schools with Hindi medium. He smirks as others speak and if enraged calls others stupid. This typifies the arrogance of an elite.

The left-wingers, another intellectual class because of their high education and Karl Marx indoctrination, form a more virulent opposition to Modi. Their outbursts and pen, both are vitriolic. Modi is rabidly communal, he mass massacred nearly 1000 members of the minority community, they keep reminding.

The memory of such intellectuals is selective. They do not or rather do not want to recall the massacre – several times of 1000–of members of another minority community in 1984 when Rajiv Gandhi was Prime Minister. He had been sworn-in within hours of the assassination of his mother. There were no lathi charge, no curfew and no prosecutions so far unlike in Gujarat. Rajiv Gandhi just said when a bunyan tree falls, earth shakes.

Why this discrimination? Because Modi is no elite, no comrade and most probably not read the codes of Karl Marx, or because he is not a jholawala but a tough-looking smartly dressed  person with skills of oratory which is unmatched? How dare a tea-vendor shouting  chaiwala, chaiwala as he passed from one compartment to another  create a wave which has swept away many of his own weaknesses

The 2002 riots were so far been the weapon of the so-called secularists to beat Modi. But then in the State of one avid champion of secularism Mulayam Singh Yadav had a nasty dose of his own medicine. Both Jats and Muslims accuse the UP Government of failing to protect them. Jats complain that years of favouritism shown to Muslims—in the name of secularism- built up resentment which released to cause riots. Muslims allege that the orgy of riots was not suppressed to create panic amongst them and then make them feel that Samajwadi Party was their only saviour.

The kind of secularism of SP in Muzaffarnagar is practised by all “secular” political parties, starting with the Congress. And this is the weapon which is being used to demolish Modi. But this weapon has got blunted now. These parties are being re-educated—that secularism means separation between religion and the State and that State must treat all faiths on equal footing. But the secularism as practised by the “secular” parties means exploiting religion for a captive vote bank and for that favouring one faith against another.

These secularists call Modi a fundamentalist, a bigoted Hindu. But what did he say when asked what are you doing for minorities (in Gujarat)—I do not do anything, I do everything for all the Gujaratis in the State. Who is more secular, the questioner or Modi?

Anyway it would be impossible for Modi to wipe out the taint immediately. The perverted form of secularism has given rise to the adulteration of the word ‘communal’ and the secularism as practised by the “secular” parties has led to deep—rooted communalism. India is thus buttressed between the covert communalism of so-called secularists and overt communalism of the RSS. Modi is in betwixt the two. He cannot convince Muslims easily that he is above all forms of communalism.

He would go into the election without the support of majority of members of the minority community. He would have to prove his sincerity in following secularism before expecting support of Muslim voters.

The wave he has created would not sweep over this taint, but yes the elite would come to know how wave sweeps away all, including them, when its in tide. The other hurdles like, the sabotage from within which would be attempted despite the RSS efforts for reconciliation, would not hurt Modi if the wave continues.

The other obstacle, a more serious one, comes from the Congress and its Dirty Tricks cell. And since the Government is led by it, all the hurdles it would create could require tough efforts to  overcome them. The wave could help a bit but as Modi said that CBI would contest, which means the agency could entangle Modi in say Ishrat Jahan’s or some other case which would bog down Modi, and hamper campaigning and cut deeply into BJP’s tally in the general election.

The only saving grace for Modi is that now its getting a bit too late to entangle him in cases. With the General Election hardly six month away, any charges if framed against Modi would be interpreted by the voter as an attempt to bind him. This could lead to polarisation, more severe than Modi could create.

The question now is whether the Modi wave would continue for another six months or abate?  It seems, it would not recede, simply because rather shrewdly Modi has been addressing every meeting according to the area and the audience. He has enthused voters in the areas he has gone so far and he is thus likely to further captivate and win voters in other places he goes to.

Modi has succeeded in building a “ class revolution” from the ground. Everyone is becoming aspiration-al. The elite and the beneficiaries of the system feel threatened. As Praveen Patil wrote, “A Ramchandra Guha who sells a few hundred copies of his muddled history books but had almost exclusive control over intellectual opinion in the past has to now compete with a Chetan Bhagat who sells millions of his books to ordinary Indians.

“This is what is disconcerting to the ruling class, for their writ no longer runs large. India is now a riot of colours and no longer can the left control carefully cultivated canvas of opinions.”

Modi is to be credited for this amazing transition. And this is why he is becoming more and more man of the masses. How does one meet such a formidable challenger of change?

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Plant a tree to save Girl Child, Indian Village shows the way


 

How fruit trees in Indian village save girls’ lives

By Amarnath Tewary Bhagalpur, Bihar

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net
Sneha, four, says she regularly waters the trees her father planted for her Photos: Prashant Ravi
Continue reading the main story

In India, where traditionally boys have been preferred over girls, a village in backward Bihar state has been setting an example by planting trees to celebrate the birth of a girl child.

In Dharhara village, Bhagalpur district, families plant a minimum of 10 trees whenever a girl child is born.

And this practice is paying off.

Nikah Kumari, 19, is all set to get married in early June. The would-be groom is a state school teacher chosen by her father, Subhas Singh.

Mr Singh is a small-scale farmer with a meagre income, but he is not worried about the high expenses needed for the marriage ceremony.

For, in keeping with the village tradition, he had planted 10 mango trees the day Nikah was born.

The girl – and the trees – were nurtured over the years and today both are grown up.

Dowry deaths

“Today that day has come for which we had planted the trees. We’ve sold off the fruits of the trees for three years in advance and got the money to pay for my daughter’s wedding,” Mr Singh told the BBC.

“The trees are our fixed deposits,” he said.

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net The village looks like a forest or a dense green patch

In Bihar, payment of dowry by the bride’s family is a common practice. The price tag of the bridegroom often depends on his caste, social status and job profile.

The state is also infamous for the maximum number of dowry deaths in the country.

But the mango trees have freed Nikah’s parents of undue worries. And their story is not unique in Dharhara village.

With a population of a little over 7,000, the village has more than 100,000 fully grown trees, mostly of mango and lychee.

From a distance, the village looks like a forest or a dense green patch amidst the parched and arid cluster of villages in the area.

‘Great value’

And most residents can be spotted sitting in the cool orchards outside their homes.

“Now, we’ve stopped doing traditional farming of wheat and paddy. We plant as many trees as we can since they are more profitable and dependable,” said villager Shyam Sunder Singh.

Fun & Info @ Keralites.net
The villagers have been planting trees for generations

Mr Singh paid for the weddings of his three daughters after selling fruits of trees he had planted at the time of their birth.

“One medium-size mango orchard is valued at around 200,000 rupees ($4,245; 2,900) every season. These trees have great commercial value and they are a big support for us at the time of our daughter’s marriage,” he says.

The villagers say they save a part of the money earned through the sale of fruits every year in a bank account opened in their daughter’s name.

The tree-planting has been going on in the village for generations now.

“We heard about it from our fathers and they from their fathers. It has been in the family and the village from ages,” says Subhendu Kumar Singh, a school teacher.

“This is our way of meeting the challenges of dowry, global warming and female foeticide. There has not been a single incident yet of female foeticide or dowry death in our village,” he says.

His cousin, Shankar Singh, planted 30 trees at the time of his daughter Sneha Surabhi’s birth.

Sneha, four, is aware that her father has planted trees in her name; the child says she regularly waters the saplings.

As yet she doesn’t know what dowry is, and says the trees will bear fruits for her “to eat”.

The village’s oldest resident, Shatrughan Prasad Singh, 86, has planted around 500 mango and lychee trees in his 25 acres of land.

His grand-daughters, Nishi and Ruchi, are confident the trees mean their family will have no problem paying for their weddings.

“The whole world should emulate us and plant more trees,” says their father Prabhu Dayal Singh.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10204759

 

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HT Latest News: Live: strong winds, rains lash Odisha coast; Cyclone Phailin to hit land in few hours


Classified as a severe cyclonic storm by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Cyclone Phailin originated over east central Bay of Bengal and has since intensified moving north-westwards, 800 km southeast of Paradip (Odisha) and 870 km east-southeast of Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).

•  It is all set to make landfall close to Gopalpur in Odisha at a wind speed of at least 205 kmph on Saturday.

•  Satellite images showed the storm, in the Bay of Bengal, to be about half the size of India.

•  Phailin means sapphire in the Thai language.

 
Cyclone categories

According to a London-based storm tracking service – Tropical Storm Risk – Phailin is a Category 4 cyclone, one notch below the most powerful Category 5 super storm like the one that hit Odisha in 1999 for 30 hours, killing almost 10,000 people.


Here’s what the various categories mean:

Category 1: Wind and gales of 90-125 kph, negligible house damage, some damage to trees and crops.

Category 2: Destructive winds of 125-164 kph. Minor house damage, significant damage to trees, crops and caravans, risk of power failure.

Category 3: Very destructive winds of 165-224 kph. Some roof and structural damage, some caravans destroyed, power failure likely.

Category 4: Very destructive winds of 225-279 kph. Significant roofing loss and structural damage, caravans destroyed, blown away, widespread power failures.

Category 5: Very destructive winds gusts of more than 280 kph. Extremely dangerous with widespread destruction.

 

Fishermen on a country boat negotiate the waves as they return with their catch on the Bay of Bengal coast at Puri, Odisha. (AP Photo)

 
The cyclone season

The country’s cyclone season runs from April to December, with severe storms often causing dozens of deaths, evacuations of tens of thousands of people from low-lying villages and wide damage to crops and property.
Techniques used to predict intensity of cyclones

•  Climatology

•  Synoptic

•  Satellite (Dvorak) techniques

•  Radar techniques
Why are tropical cyclones named?

•  Tropical cyclones are named to provide easy communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings.

•  The first use of a proper name for a tropical cyclone was by an Australian forecaster early in the 20th century. He gave tropical cyclone names after political figures he disliked.

•  During World War II, tropical cyclones were informally given women’s names by US Army Air Corp and Navy meteorologists (after their girlfriends or wives) who were monitoring and forecasting tropical cyclones over the Pacific.

•  From 1950 to 1952, tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean were identified by the phonetic alphabet (Able-Baker-Charlie-etc.), but in 1953 the US Weather Bureau switched to women’s names. In 1979, the World Meteorological Organization and the US National Weather Service (NWS) switched to a list of names that also included men’s names.

•  The Northeast Pacific basin tropical cyclones were named using women’s names starting in 1959 for storms near Hawaii and in 1960 for the remainder of the Northeast Pacific basin. In 1978, both men’s and women’s names were utilised.

•  The Northwest Pacific basin tropical cyclones were given women’s names officially starting in 1945 and men’s names were also included beginning in 1979. Beginning on 1 January 2000, tropical cyclones in the Northwest Pacific basin are being named from a new and very different list of names.

 

A satellite image of cyclonic storm ‘Phailin’. (The weather Channel)

 

•  These newly selected names have two major differences from the rest of the world’s tropical cyclone name rosters. One, the names by and large are not personal names. There are a few men’s and women’s names, but the majority are names of flowers, animals, birds, trees, or even foods, etc, while some are descriptive adjectives. Secondly, the names are not allotted in alphabetical order, but are arranged by contributing nation with the countries being alphabetised.

•  The Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones were first named during the 1960/1961 season.

•  The Australian and South Pacific region (east of 90E, south of the equator) started giving women’s names to the storms in 1964 and both men’s and women’s names in 1974/1975.

•  The North Indian Ocean region tropical cyclones are being named since October 2004.
Names reused every six years

•  Atlantic and Pacific storm names are reused every six years, but are retired “if a storm is so deadly or costly that the future use of the name would be insensitive or confusing,” according to forecasters at the US National Hurricane Center in Miami.

•  Hurricane Sandy was the 77th name to be retired from the Atlantic list since 1954. It will be replaced with “Sara” beginning in 2018, when the list from 2012 is repeated. Hurricane Sandy was the deadliest and most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season that hit the US last year.

 

Who discovered America ?


 

Subject: WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA?

Subject: WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA?

by Ricardo Palleres

What if Europe was really in darkness in comparison to the Far East and India that Columbus set sail to find? What if the popular idea that the Tibetans and the American Indians have much in common in terms of their spiritual culture is largely a result of another historical scenario? What if Hindus and Hopis, Advaitins and Aztecs, Tibetan monks and Mayans were part of one world culture — a spiritual one?

It very well may come to pass in the near future that those concerned with truth will wrestle primarily with history rather than science. The obvious reason for this is that, in the words of Dr. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, author ofTheology and the World’s Religious History, “Humanity is more important than things. The truth about humanity is of a higher order than the truth about things.”1

History tells an intriguing tale, one that ultimately may provide the greatest support for a spiritual worldview. But history has also been distorted. An example of this is the “common knowledge” that Columbus discovered America. Some say he didn’t, nor were any other Europeans the first to touch America’s shores. There is good reason to reexamine the history of the world and the Americas in particular. An unbiased look into the development of our planet’s civilizations may help to bring about a change in values, a shift from material values to spiritual ones.

What if Europe was really in darkness in comparison to the Far East and India that Columbus set sail to find? What if the popular idea that the Tibetans and the American Indians have much in common in terms of their spiritual culture is largely a result of another historical scenario? What if Hindus and Hopis, Advaitins and Aztecs, Tibetan monks and Mayans were part of one world culture — a spiritual one? Perhaps the development of Western civilization and the Protestant ethic, which many of the West are now coming to abhor, have gotten in the way of the spiritual development of humanity. Perhaps many technological developments, while making physical contact with other cultures more possible, have distanced us from one another in a deeper sense. Another historical scenario: The spiritually sophisticated Asians were the first to set foot on Western shores, and Asia, not Europe, was the seat of culture. The central focus of that culture was genuine spiritual development, not the mere shadow of the same in the form of the politically-motivated Pauline Christianity and later the Protestant ethic, which licensed humankind’s exploitation of nature.

This theory is found in the Vedic literature of India. The ancient Puranas(literally, histories) and the Mahabharata make mention of the Americas as lands rich with gold and silver. Argentina, which means ‘related to silver,’ is thought to have been named after Arjuna (of silver hue), one of the heroes of that great epic. India’s Puranic histories are, however, questionable to the rationalist. In the minds of the empiricists, they are more akin to myths. Yet myths have meaning, as the late Joseph Campbell has reminded us. ThePuranas downplay in particular the mere recording of mundane events. The Puranic view is that even if its histories are only myths (which is not necessarily the case), the lessons to be learned from them are infinitely more valuable than what can be learned from recording the coming and going of humanity. In their view, only those human events that serve to promote transcendental knowledge are worth recording. Although empiricists are justified in dismissing them from their viewpoint, the so-called myths and their followers are also justified in dismissing the empiricist’s insistence that empirical evidence is final.

Granted, India has shown some lacking in her ability to record her story. But that is due to her preoccupation with the transcendent, the suprahistorical, and not to any ineptitude on her part. According to Kana Mitra in her article “Theologizing Through History?” We [Hindus] tend to forget about history, and the de-emphasis of nama-rupa — name and form [due to transcendent preoccupation] — is one of the reasons for not putting down a name or date in many of our writings. Consequently present-day historians have a difficult time in determining the date and authorship of various works.”2

Fortunately, for dealing with the “I’ll only believe it if I can see it” mentality of the empiricist, there is considerable hard evidence and academic support for the Vedic theory that most people are unaware of. Unbiased consideration of this remarkable evidence may move modern-day rationalists to give serious thought to the more realistic spiritual outlook of “Only if you believe it can you see it.” After all, reality is a living thing and it may reserve the right not to show itself but to those to whom it so chooses. Otherwise, why are we in illusion, or in search of reality? If it is something we can attain by our own prowess, how did we get here (in doubt) in the first place?

The meeting (1519) of Hernan Cortes and the Aztec emperor Montezuma II is depicted in this 17th century Spanish painting. (British Embassy, Mexico City). Unfortunately, the American Indians did not survive their cultural exchange with Europe. The Europeans, through book burning and bayonet, successfully “converted” them leaving very little trace of their noble civilization.

Many historians have scrutinized historical evidence to find more insight into the marvelous cultures that populated the American continent before Christopher Columbus was born. Their thirst for research was based on the assumption that the great Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations could not have appeared all of a sudden in the Western world. Rather, they must have received strong influence from ancient Eastern cultures, mainly from India.

Alexander von Humbolt (1769-1859), an eminent European scholar and anthropologist, was one of the first to postulate the Asiatic origin of the Indian civilizations of the Americas. His and other scholars’ views formed the basis for the “diffusionist” argument, which was opposed by the “isolationist” viewpoint. Diffusionists believe that the world’s civilizations are a result of social contact (civilized man meets uncivilized man). Isolationists believe that civilizations cropped up all over the earth without physical contact with one another.

The Aztec Calendar is known as the Aztec Chakra to Hindu Astronomers. (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico.)

“The doctrine of the world’s ages (Hindu Yugas) was imported into Pre-Columbian America… The Mexican sequence is identical with the Hindus… The essential fact remains that they were derived from a common source… It would be ridiculous to assert that such a strange doctrine was of spontaneous origin in different parts of old and new worlds.” — Mackenzie, Myths of Pre-Columbian America.

It is readily accepted that some twenty thousand years ago primitive Asians crossed the Bering Strait into North America and gradually moved south all the way to Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Diffusionists maintained that after this occurred civilized Asiatic people distributed themselves via the Pacific, thereby bringing civilization to the Americas. Isolationists insisted that after the nomadic tribes crossed the Bering Strait, a homogeneous race of “Indians of the Americas” was formed, and the American tribespeople then went about reinventing all culture, duplicating in two thousand years what originally took about six millenniums in the Old World.

Henry Charlton Bastian, author of The Evolution of Life (1907), presented the concept of physicochemical evolution, which gave strength to the isolationists. His theory advocated that the development of civilized man was a result of “a psychic unity of mankind,” rather than social contact. Bastian’s theory of elementargedanke influenced many anthropologists, and today, although the theory is not accepted, it is tacitly acknowledged as far as the conformities between America and Old World civilizations are concerned.3

This pseudo-evolutionist theory leaves much to be desired, and its unspoken acceptance casts doubt on the credibility of the anthropologists. After all, doesn’t it tax our credulity when we are asked to believe that a whole series of complicated techniques like casting by the lost wax method, the alloying of copper and tin, the coloring of gold by chemical processes, weaving, and tie-dyeing and batik were by some miracle invented twice, once in the Old World and again from scratch in the Americas? What mysterious psychological law would have caused Asians and Americans to both use the umbrella as a sign of royalty, to invent the same games, imagine similar cosmologies, and attribute the same colors to the different directions?

No archeologist today would attribute to prehistoric Europeans the independent invention of bronze casting, iron work, the wheel, weaving, pottery, writing, and so many other cultural elements that were derived from the Middle East. Similarly, the industrial developments in Britain were introduced from elsewhere within the European continent, not developed independently. What then would cause one to insist that what was not possible for the Europeans (duplicating culture independently) was possible for the American Indians? Especially when at the same time we are taught that the Europeans were of superior stock!

It was in 1949 that these opposing views met head-on at the Congress of the Americanists held in New York, which was sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History. At that time, the diffusionists presented an overwhelming mass of Asiatic-Pacific-American parallels. Nonetheless, much of the diffusionists’ evidence continues to be ignored, and the isolationist view is more widely accepted. The reason for this may be more than empirical evidence or lack of the same. Indeed, it may be the faulty nature of the empirical approach, which depends on one’s imperfect senses and causes one to dismiss facts that do not conform with the prevailing worldview.

The Aryan civilization of India is a logical choice for the beginning of the diffusion of our planet’s civilization. American historian Will Durant, in his book Our Oriental Heritage, described India as the most ancient civilization on earth, and he offered many examples of Indian culture throughout the world. He demonstrated that as early as the ninth century b.c.e. Indians were exploring the sea routes, reaching out and extending their cultural influence to Mesapotamia, Arabia, and Egypt.

“Europe, after Guttenburg’s invention of the printing press, wasted no time in announcing the discovery of the New World. It was at this time that European historians began to present to the rest of the world that their land was the center of culture and civilization.”

Although modern-day historians and anthropologists might prefer to accept Egypt or Babylon as the most ancient civilization, due to various archeological findings, their theories are by no means conclusive. The popular theory in the academic community that the Aryans were an Indo-European stock, who spoke an unknown pre-Sanskrit language and only later invaded India subsequently occupying her, is also considerably lacking in supportive evidence. Indeed, there is very little evidence whatsoever for the postulated Aryan invasion of India. But perhaps it is easier for modern people to accept ancient Egypt and Babylon, whose ancient civilizations have no living representation and thereby do not pose any challenge to the status quo.

But India is alive and kicking. Prominent traces of ancient Vedic civilization can still be found today not only in India but outside her borders as well. The life science of ayurveda, yoga and meditation, and Sanskrit texts translated into modern languages are all prominent examples. If we recognize ancient India as a civilized spiritual giant, we will have to reckon with her modern-day representations. It is altogether possible that the Vedic theory, if thoroughly researched, poses a threat to many of the concepts of modern civilization and the current worldview, as can be seen by the fact that the Vedic literature and spiritual ideology loomed as the greatest threat to the British in their imperialistic conquest of India.

The Aryans’ footprints are found throughout neighboring Southeast Asia. They were skilled navigators and pioneers of many cultural developments. According to several sources, these Aryans ruled in Java, Bali, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Annan, Burma, and Thailand until the fourteenth century. Even today, the kings of Thailand bear the title Ramaafter the Indian Ramraja (the perfect kingdom said to have been governed by the incarnation of Godhead Ramachandra). And the story of Ramayana is depicted on the palace walls in Bangkok.

Cambodia, the ancient Kamboja, boasts the largest temple complex in the world, named Ankor, from the Sanskrit language meaning “the capital city.” It was built in the ninth century c.e. in honor of the Hindu god Vishnu. The complex extends over an area more than twice the size of Manhattan and took thirty-seven years to complete. Its physical and spiritual grandeur is found elsewhere only in ancient Greece, Egypt, and among the Mayan and Aztec civilizations. Cambodia’s principle river is today called Me Kong, which some scholars say is derived from India’s Ma Ganga (Mother Ganges).

Vietnam, once called Champa, figures prominently as a stepping-stone in the story of India’s cultural expansion to the Americas. Furthermore, the Hindu state of Java was founded by the king of Kalinga (Orissa) in the first century c.e. Java is said to be the ancient Yava-Dveepa mentioned in the Ramayanaand other Sanskrit texts. The Indonesian national flag flies the symbol of Garuda, the bird carrier of Vishnu. Garuda is also the national symbol of that country.

In 1949, two scholars, Gordon Ekholm and Chaman Lal, systematically compared the Mayan, Aztec, Incan, and North American Indian civilizations with the Hindu-oriented countries of Southeast Asia and with India herself. According to them, the emigrant cultures of India took with them India’s system of time measurement, local gods, and customs. Ekholm and Lal found signs of Aryan civilization throughout the Americas in art (lotus flowers with knotted stems and half-dragon/half-fish motifs found commonly in paintings and carvings), architecture, calendars, astronomy, religious symbols, and even games such as our Parcheesi and Mexican patolli, which have their origins in India’s pachisi.

Both the Hindus and the Americans used similar items in their worship rituals. They both maintained the concept of four yuga cycles, or cosmological seasons, extending over thousands of years, and conceived of twelve constellations with reference to the Sun as indicated by the Incan sun calendar. Royal insignias, systems of government, and practice of religious dance and temple worship all showed remarkable similarities, pointing strongly to the idea that the Americas were strongly influenced by the Aryans.

The temples of India (pict. 1-2) are built according to the ancient Vedic architectural science. There are striking similarities between Mayan temples and those in India. Pict. 3-4: Two Mayan temples from Palenque, Mexico and Central America.

Another scholar, Ramon Mena, author of Mexican Archeology, called the Nahuatl, Zapoteca, and Mayan languages “of Hindu origin.” He went on to say, “A deep mystery enfolds the tribes that inhabited the state of Chiapas in the district named Palenque. . . . Their writing, and the anthropological type, as well as their personal adornments . . . their system and style of construction clearly indicate the remotest antiquity. . . . [they] all speak of India and the Orient.”4 Still another scholar, Ambassador Poindexter, in his two-volume 1930s treatise The Arya-Incas, called the Mayan civilization “unquestionably Hindu.”      

The Aztec culture in particular shows a striking resemblance to that of India. Aztecs divided their society into four divisions of both labor and spiritual status, as did the Hindus. In India, this system of government was known asvarnashrama, or the division of society based on body types and mental dispositions resulting from past karma. As in Indian civilization, the Aztecs maintained a God-centered government in which people were employed in accordance with their natural karmic tendencies. The results of the labor of all the priests, administrators, mercantilists, and laborers were for the glorification of Godhead, who in turn was thought to provide for humankind.

Aztec boys were sent to school at the age of five, at which time they were put under the care of a priest and trained in various duties of temple life. The Aztec system of education bears a striking resemblance to the Indian system of gurukula, in which boys were sent to the care of a guru for spiritual and practical education. The Mayans and Incas had a similar approach to education, which was mainly a training for priestly service. Fanny Bandelier’s translation of Sahagun’s History of Ancient Mexico describes that the intellectually inclined boys were trained as “ministers to the idols.”

Girls were educated in the domestic arts at home and did not mingle with young boys. Even as late as the 1930s, there was no courtship between Mexican Indian girls and boys, as is still the case in village life in India today. From conception to education, marriage, death, cremation, and even the observance of the sati rite, there are overwhelming parallels between Indian society and the Americas. Further evidence of cultural ties between the East and West is found in the statues of American gods who show a striking resemblance to the Hindu deities of Hanuman, Shiva, Indra, Vishnu and others. Such statues have been found throughout the Americas, and many of them can be seen today in museums in Central America.

The Mexican Indians and the Incas of Peru were primarily vegetarians. They were of high moral character and hospitable and generous as a habit. They practiced astrology, and mental telepathy was common among them. It was perhaps their peace-loving disposition that, like the Hindus, allowed them to be ruled by Europeans. Unfortunately, the American Indians did not survive their cultural exchange with Europe. The Europeans, through book burning and bayonet, successfully “converted” them, leaving very little trace of their noble civilization.

And what about Europe? When merchants sailing from India brought delicious spices, aromatic perfumes, incense, fine silk, precious stones set in delicate and rare jewelry, complex craftsmanship of ivory, and many other goods never seen before by Europeans, the riches and mystique of that land captivated them. The stories told by many navigators about that land of wonder, where the palaces were built of varieties of marble rather than rush stone, decorated with beautiful sculptures and wooden inlay, made the Queen of Spain so covetous that she provided Christopher Columbus with all necessities for his famous journey. Columbus had heard of India’s riches through the writings of Marco Polo. Polo had written that India “was the richest and noblest country of the world.”5

Europe, after Guttenburg’s invention of the printing press, wasted no time in announcing the discovery of the New World. It was at this time that European historians began to present to the rest of the world that their land was the center of culture and civilization. In comparison to Indian society, however, the Europeans were rather crude. The ominous age of the Inquisition, with its persecution and fanaticism, the use of mechanical devices to insure the “chastity” of its women, the exploitation of the serfs, and self-destructive habits, such as indiscriminate eating and alcoholism within the higher classes, are all evidence of this. The original Palace of Versailles in Paris, although certainly a unique architectural creation requiring genius, was built without a single bathroom. Louis XIV and his court are said to have evacuated behind curtains, cleaning themselves with the same. The king was in the habit of substituting soap with Indian perfume and waited until his thirty-fifth birthday before he took his first complete bath.

When Europe was still uncivilized, Indian culture, as well as American culture, was highly advanced. When Europeans were still cave dwellers and nomads wandering from place to place subsisting through hunting, some American peoples were plowing fields and baking bread and dressing in cotton, the seeds for which came from India. The subtlety of Indian society, both eastern and western, marks its superiority to Europe. It was a subtlety of spiritual outlook that Europeans failed to appreciate.

The Dresden Codex, one of the few Mayan hieroglyphic manuscripts that survived the book-burnings by Spanish invaders, documents astronomical calculations of the planed Venus. Large numbers of codices were compiled by the Mayan priests to record religious rites and astronomical facts. (Sachsische Landesbibliothek, Dresden, East Germany.)

The industrial revolution of Europe was prompted by India’s cotton, which competed with European wool. Later when the popularity of cotton products imported from India increased, the Europeans began to manufacture cotton in mills. Thus it was even an Indian resource that prompted Europe’s claim to fame — the beginning of modern technology.

It is altogether possible that the Vedic theory, if thoroughly researched, poses a threat to many of the concepts of modern civilization and the current worldview.

Several ancient cultures of the Americas were more spiritually attuned than the Europeans. They also lived with great regard for nature. Many people today are searching out the spirituality of the Americas, a spirituality that was lacking in Europe and is now lacking throughout the world. The Christ’s teachings were most certainly tainted with misunderstanding of that great savior’s message of love. And he too is said to have been influenced by India’s spirituality. His appearance in the world for that matter is mentioned in India’s Bavishya Purana long before the virgin birth took place.

The theory that India, Mother India, is the earthly source of spirituality can be to some extent supported by the fact that India is still today the most religious country in the world, with a theology that dates back to antiquity. The idea that she is the source of civilization as well, although supporting evidence is available, will ultimately require that modern man reevaluate what constitutes civilization before it gains wider acceptance.

 

Notes

1. Wilfred Cantwell Smith,”Theology of the World’s Religious History,” Toward a Universal Theology of Religion, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, N.Y. (1987) p.69.

2. Kana Mitra, “Theologizing Through History?” Toward a Universal Theology of Religion, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, N.Y. (1987), p.82.

3. Dr. Robert Heine Geldern, “Challenge to Isolationists,” Hindu America,Chaman Lal, Zodiac Press, New Delhi, (1940) Introduction p.vii.

4. Ibid., p. 14.    

5. Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo (The Venitian), revised from Marsden’s translation and edited with introduction by Manuel Komroff, Livright Pub, (1956) p.201.

 

Further References

William Mccgillivray, The Travells and Research of Alexander von Humbolt,Harper Bros. N.Y. (1872).

Henry Charles Bastian, The Evolution of Life. E.P. Dutton & Co. N.Y. (1907).

Gordon Ekholm, Excavations At Sinaloa, American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. (1942).

Gordon Ekholm, Excavations at Lampico and Panuco in the Hausteca,American Museum of Natural History N.Y. (1944).

Reprinted from Clarion Call Magazine (1988) with permission.

 

Why I Killed Gandhi by Nathuram Vinayak Godse- must read


this may be a repeat but read on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti

 

Subject: WHY I KILLED GANDHI by NATHURAM VINAYAK GODSE

Gandhiji’s assassin, Nathuram Godse’s Final Address to the Court.

WHY I KILLED GANDHI - Nathuram Godse's Final Address to the Court.WHY I KILLED GANDHI – Nathuram Godse’s Final Address to the Court.

Nathuram Godse was arrested immediately after he assassinated Gandhiji, based on a F. I. R. filed by Nandlal Mehta at the Tughlak Road Police staton at Delhi . The trial, which was held in camera, began on May 27, 1948 and concluded on February 10, 1949. He was sentenced to death.

An appeal to the Punjab High Court, then in session at Simla, did not find favour and the sentence was upheld. The statement that you are about to read is the last made by Godse before the Court on the May 5, 1949.

Such was the power and eloquence of this statement that one of the judges, G. D. Khosla, later wrote, “I have, however, no doubt that had the audience of that day been constituted into a jury and entrusted with the task of deciding Godse’s appeal, they would have brought a verdict of ‘not Guilty’ by an overwhelming majority”

WHY I KILLED GANDHI

Born in a devotional Brahmin family, I instinctively came to revere Hindu religion, Hindu history and Hindu culture. I had, therefore, been intensely proud of Hinduism as a whole. As I grew up I developed a tendency to free thinking unfettered by any superstitious allegiance to any isms, political or religious. That is why I worked actively for the eradication of untouchability and the caste system based on birth alone. I openly joined RSS wing of anti-caste movements and maintained that all Hindus were of equal status as to rights, social and religious and should be considered high or low on merit alone and not through the accident of birth in a particular caste or profession.

I used publicly to take part in organized anti-caste dinners in which thousands of Hindus, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Chamars and Bhangis participated. We broke the caste rules and dined in the company of each other. I have read the speeches and writings of Ravana, Chanakiya, Dadabhai Naoroji, Vivekanand, Gokhale, Tilak, along with the books of ancient and modern history of India and some prominent countries like England , France , America and Russia . Moreover I studied the tenets of Socialism and Marxism. But above all I studied very closely whatever Veer Savarkar and Gandhiji had written and spoken, as to my mind these two ideologies have contributed more to the moulding of the thought and action of the Indian people during the last thirty years or so, than any other single factor has done.

All this reading and thinking led me to believe it was my first duty to serve Hindudom and Hindus both as a patriot and as a world citizen. To secure the freedom and to safeguard the just interests of some thirty crores (300 million) of Hindus would automatically constitute the freedom and the well-being of all India , one fifth of human race. This conviction led me naturally to devote myself to the Hindu Sanghtanist ideology and programme, which alone, I came to believe, could win and preserve the national independence of Hindustan , my Motherland, and enable her to render true service to humanity as well.

Since the year 1920, that is, after the demise of Lokamanya Tilak, Gandhiji’s influence in the Congress first increased and then became supreme. His activities for public awakening were phenomenal in their intensity and were reinforced by the slogan of truth and non-violence which he paraded ostentatiously before the country. No sensible or enlightened person could object to those slogans. In fact there is nothing new or original in them.. They are implicit in every constitutional public movement. But it is nothing but a mere dream if you imagine that the bulk of mankind is, or can ever become, capable of scrupulous adherence to these lofty principles in its normal life from day to day.

In fact, honour, duty and love of one’s own kith and kin and country might often compel us to disregard non-violence and to use force. I could never conceive that an armed resistance to an aggression is unjust. I would consider it a religious and moral duty to resist and, if possible, to overpower such an enemy by use of force. [In the Ramayana] Rama killed Ravana in a tumultuous fight and relieved Sita.. [In the Mahabharata], Krishna killed Kansa to end his wickedness; and Arjuna had to fight and slay quite a number of his friends and relationsincluding the revered Bhishma because the latter was on the side of the aggressor. It is my firm belief that in dubbing Rama, Krishna and Arjuna as guilty of violence, the Mahatma betrayed a total ignorance of the springs of human action.
In more recent history, it was the heroic fight put up by Chhatrapati Shivaji that first checked and eventually destroyed the Muslim tyranny in India . It was absolutely essentially for Shivaji to overpower and kill an aggressive Afzal Khan, failing which he would have lost his own life. In condemning history’s towering warriors like Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Gobind Singh as misguided patriots, Gandhiji has merely exposed his self-conceit. He was, paradoxical as it may appear, a violent pacifist who brought untold calamities on the country in the name of truth and non-violence, while Rana Pratap, Shivaji and the Guru will remain enshrined in the hearts of their countrymen for ever for the freedom they brought to them.

The accumulating provocation of thirty-two years, culminating in his last pro-Muslim fast, at last goaded me to the conclusion that the existence of Gandhi should be brought to an end immediately. Gandhi had done very good in South Africa to uphold the rights and well-being of the Indian community there. But when he finally returned to India he developed a subjective mentality under which he alone was to be the final judge of what was right or wrong. If the country wanted his leadership, it had to accept his infallibility; if it did not, he would stand aloof from the Congress and carry on his own way.

Against such an attitude there can be no halfway house. Either Congress had to surrender its will to his and had to be content with playing second fiddle to all his eccentricity, whimsicality, metaphysics and primitive vision, or it had to carry on without him. He alone was the Judge of everyone and every thing; he was the master brain guiding the civil disobedience movement; no other could know the technique of that movement. He alone knew when to begin and when to withdraw it. The movement might succeed or fail, it might bring untold disaster and political reverses but that could make no difference to the Mahatma’s infallibility. ‘A Satyagrahi can never fail’ was his formula for declaring his own infallibility and nobody except himself knew what a Satyagrahi is. Thus, the Mahatma became the judge and jury in his own cause. These childish insanities and obstinacies, coupled with a most severe austerity of life, ceaseless work and lofty character made Gandhi formidable and irresistible.

Many people thought that his politics were irrational but they had either to withdraw from the Congress or place their intelligence at his feet to do with as he liked. In a position of such absolute irresponsibility Gandhi was guilty of blunder after blunder, failure after failure, disaster after disaster. Gandhi’s pro-Muslim policy is blatantly in his perverse attitude on the question of the national language of India . It is quite obvious that Hindi has the most prior claim to be accepted as the premier language. In the beginning of his career in India , Gandhi gave a great impetus to Hindi but as he found that the Muslims did not like it, he became a champion of what is called Hindustani.. Everybody in India knows that there is no language called Hindustani; it has no grammar; it has no vocabulary. It is a mere dialect, it is spoken, but not written. It is a bastard tongue and cross-breed between Hindi and Urdu, and not even the Mahatma’s sophistry could make it popular. But in his desire to please the Muslims he insisted that Hindustani alone should be the national language of India . His blind followers, of course, supported him and the so-called hybrid language began to be used. The charm and purity of the Hindi language was to be prostituted to please the Muslims. All his experiments were at the expense of the Hindus.

From August 1946 onwards the private armies of the Muslim League began a massacre of the Hindus. The then Viceroy, Lord Wavell, though distressed at what was happening, would not use his powers under the Government of India Act of 1935 to prevent the rape, murder and arson. The Hindu blood began to flow from Bengal to Karachi with some retaliation by the Hindus. The Interim Government formed in September was sabotaged by its Muslim League members right from its inception, but the more they became disloyal and treasonable to the government of which they were a part, the greater was Gandhi’s infatuation for them. Lord Wavell had to resign as he could not bring about a settlement and he was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten. King Log was followed by King Stork. The Congress which had boasted of its nationalism and socialism secretly accepted Pakistan literally at the point of the bayonet and abjectly surrendered to Jinnah. India was vivisected and one-third of the Indian territory became foreign land to us from August 15, 1947.

Lord Mountbatten came to be described in Congress circles as the greatest Viceroy and Governor-General this country ever had. The official date for handing over power was fixed for June 30, 1948, but Mountbatten with his ruthless surgery gave us a gift of vivisected India ten months in advance. This is what Gandhi had achieved after thirty years of undisputed dictatorship and this is what Congress party calls ‘freedom’ and ‘peaceful transfer of power’. The Hindu-Muslim unity bubble was finally burst and a theocratic state was established with the consent of Nehru and his crowd and they have called ‘freedom won by them with sacrifice’ – whose sacrifice? When top leaders of Congress, with the consent of Gandhi, divided and tore the country – which we consider a deity of worship – my mind was filled with direful anger.

One of the conditions imposed by Gandhi for his breaking of the fast unto death related to the mosques in Delhi occupied by the Hindu refugees. But when Hindus in Pakistan were subjected to violent attacks he did not so much as utter a single word to protest and censure the Pakistan Government or the Muslims concerned. Gandhi was shrewd enough to know that while undertaking a fast unto death, had he imposed for its break some condition on the Muslims in Pakistan , there would have been found hardly any Muslims who could have shown some grief if the fast had ended in his death. It was for this reason that he purposely avoided imposing any condition on the Muslims. He was fully aware of from the experience that Jinnah was not at all perturbed or influenced by his fast and the Muslim League hardly attached any value to the inner voice of Gandhi.

Gandhi is being referred to as the Father of the Nation. But if that is so, he had failed his paternal duty inasmuch as he has acted very treacherously to the nation by his consenting to the partitioning of it. I stoutly maintain that Gandhi has failed in his duty. He has proved to be the Father of Pakistan. His inner-voice, his spiritual power and his doctrine of non-violence of which so much is made of, all crumbled before Jinnah’s iron will and proved to be powerless. Briefly speaking, I thought to myself and foresaw I shall be totally ruined, and the only thing I could expect from the people would be nothing but hatred and that I shall have lost all my honour, even more valuable than my life, if I were to kill Gandhiji. But at the same time I felt that the Indian politics in the absence of Gandhiji would surely be proved practical, able to retaliate, and would be powerful with armed forces. No doubt, my own future would be totally ruined, but the nation would be saved from the inroads of Pakistan . People may even call me and dub me as devoid of any sense or foolish, but the nation would be free to follow the course founded on the reason which I consider to be necessary for sound nation-building.

After having fully considered the question, I took the final decision in the matter, but I did not speak about it to anyone whatsoever. I took courage in both my hands and I did fire the shots at Gandhiji on 30th January 1948, on the prayer-grounds of Birla House. I do say that my shots were fired at the person whose policy and action had brought rack and ruin and destruction to millions of Hindus. There was no legal machinery by which such an offender could be brought to book and for this reason I fired those fatal shots. I bear no ill will towards anyone individually but I do say that I had no respect for the present government owing to their policy which was unfairly favourable towards the Muslims. But at the same time I could clearly see that the policy was entirely due to the presence of Gandhi.

I have to say with great regret that Prime Minister Nehru quite forgets that his preachings and deeds are at times at variances with each other when he talks about India as a secular state in season and out of season, because it is significant to note that Nehru has played a leading role in the establishment of the theocratic state of Pakistan, and his job was made easier by Gandhi’s persistent policy of appeasement towards the Muslims. I now stand before the court to accept the full share of my responsibility for what I have done and the judge would, of course, pass against me such orders of sentence as may be considered proper. But I would like to add that I do not desire any mercy to be shown to me, nor do I wish that anyone else should beg for mercy on my behalf. My confidence about the moral side of my action has not been shaken even by the criticism levelled against it on all sides. I have no doubt that honest writers of history will weigh my act and find the true value thereof some day in future.

 

Interesting – Why am I a Hindu ?


A Hindu was flying from JFK New York Airport to SFO San Francisco Airport CA to attend a meeting at Monterey, CA.

An American girl was sitting on the right side, near window seat. It indeed was a long journey – it would take nearly seven hours.

He was surprised to see the young girl reading a Bible unusual of young Americans. After some time she smiled and we had few acquaintances talk.He told her that I am from India

Then suddenly the girl asked: ‘What’s your faith?’ ‘What?’ He didn’t understand the question.

‘I mean, what’s your religion? Are you a Christian? Or a Muslim?’

‘No!’ He replied, ‘He am neither Christian nor Muslim’.

Apparently she appeared shocked to listen to that. ‘Then who are you?’ “I am a Hindu”, He said.

She looked at him as if she was seeing a caged animal. She could not understand what He was talking about.

A common man in Europe or US knows about Christianity and Islam, as they are the leading religions of the world today.

But a Hindu, what?

He explained to her – I am born to a Hindu father and Hindu mother. Therefore, I am a Hindu by birth.

‘Who is your prophet?’ she asked.

‘We don’t have a prophet,’ He replied.

‘What’s your Holy Book?’

‘We don’t have a single Holy Book, but we have hundreds and thousands of philosophical and sacred scriptures,’
He replied.

‘Oh, come on at least tell me who is your God?’

‘What do you mean by that?’

‘Like we have Jesus and Muslims have Allah – don’t you have a God?’

He thought for a moment. Muslims and Christians believe one God (Male God) who created the world and takes an interest in the humans who inhabit it. Her mind is conditioned with that kind of belief.

According to her (or anybody who doesn’t know about Hinduism), a religion needs to have one Prophet, one Holy book and one God. The mind is so conditioned and rigidly narrowed down to such a notion that anything else is not acceptable. He understood her perception and concept about faith. You can’t compare Hinduism with any of the present leading religions where you have to believe in one concept of God.

He tried to explain to her: ‘You can believe in one God and he can be a Hindu. You may believe in multiple deities and still you can be a Hindu. What’s more – you may not believe in God at all, still you can be a Hindu. An Atheist can also be a Hindu.’

This sounded very crazy to her. She couldn’t imagine a religion so unorganized, still surviving for thousands of years, even after onslaught from foreign forces.

‘I don’t understand but it seems very interesting. Are you religious?’

What can He tell to this American girl?

He said: ‘I do not go to Temple regularly. I do not make any regular rituals. I have learned some of the rituals in my younger days. I still enjoy doing it sometimes’.

‘Enjoy? Are you not afraid of God?’

‘God is a friend. No- I am not afraid of God. Nobody has made any compulsions on me to perform these rituals regularly.’

She thought for a while and then asked: ‘Have you ever thought of converting to any other religion?’

‘Why should I? Even if I challenge some of the rituals and faith in Hinduism, nobody can convert me from Hinduism. Because, being a Hindu allows me to think independently and objectively, without conditioning. I remain as a Hindu never by force, but choice.’ He told her that Hinduism is not a religion, but a set of beliefs and practices. It is not a religion like Christianity or Islam because it is not founded by any one person or does not have an organized controlling body like the Church or the Order, I added. There is no institution or authority..

‘So, you don’t believe in God?’ she wanted everything in black and white.

‘I didn’t say that. I do not discard the divine reality. Our scripture, or Sruthis or Smrithis – Vedas and Upanishads or the Gita – say God might be there or he might not be there. But we pray to that supreme abstract authority (Para Brahma) that is the creator of this universe.’

‘Why can’t you believe in one personal God?’

‘We have a concept – abstract – not a personal god. The concept or notion of a personal God, hiding behind the clouds of secrecy, telling us irrational stories through few men whom he sends as messengers, demanding us to worship him or punish us, does not make sense. I don’t think that God is as silly as an autocratic emperor who wants others to respect him or fear him.’ He told her that such notions are just fancies of less educated human imagination and fallacies, adding that generally ethnic religious practitioners in Hinduism believe in personal Gods. The entry level Hinduism has over-whelming superstitions too. The philosophical side of Hinduism negates all superstitions.

‘Good that you agree God might exist. You told that you pray. What is your prayer then?’

‘Loka Samastha Sukino Bhavantu. Om Shanti, Shanti, Shanti,’
लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तु !!! ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः !!!

‘Funny,’ she laughed, ‘What does it mean?’

‘May all the beings in all the worlds be happy. Let there be Peace, Peace,and Peace every where.’

‘Hmm ..very interesting. I want to learn more about this religion. It is so democratic, broad-minded and free’ she exclaimed.

‘The fact is Hinduism is a religion of the individual, for the individual and by the individual with its roots in the Vedas and the Bhagavad-Gita. It is all about an individual approaching a personal God in an individual way according to his temperament and inner evolution – it is as simple as that.’

‘How does anybody convert to Hinduism?’

‘Nobody can convert you to Hinduism, because it is not a religion, but it is a Culture, a way of leaving life, a set of beliefs and practices. Everything is acceptable in Hinduism because there is no single Authority or Organization either to accept you or to reject you or to oppose you on behalf of Hinduism.’

He told her – if you look for meaning in life, don’t look for it in religions; don’t go from one cult to another or from one Guru to the next.

For a real seeker, He told her, the Bible itself gives guidelines when it says ‘ Kingdom of God is within you.’ I reminded her of Christ’s teaching about the love that we have for each other. That is where you can find the meaning of life.

Loving each and every creation of the God is absolute and real. ‘Isavasyam idam sarvam’ Isam (the God) is present (inhabits) here everywhere – nothing exists separate from the God, because God is present everywhere. Respect every living being and non-living things as God. That’s what Hinduism teaches you.

Hinduism is referred to as Sanathana Dharma, the eternal faith. It is based on the practice of Dharma, the code of life. The most important aspect of Hinduism is being truthful to oneself. Hinduism has no monopoly on ideas. It is open to all. Hindus believe in one God (not a personal one) expressed in different forms. For them, God is timeless and formless entity.

Ancestors of today’s Hindus believe in eternal truths and cosmic laws and these truths are opened to anyone who seeks them. But there is a section of Hindus who are either superstitious or turned fanatic to make this an organized religion like others. The British coin the word ‘Hindu’ and considered it as a religion.

He said: ‘Religions have become an MLM (multi-level- marketing) industry that has been trying to expand the market share by conversion. The biggest business in today’s world is Spirituality. Hinduism is no exception’

He said “I am a Hindu primarily because it professes Non-violence – ‘Ahimsa Paramo Dharma’ means – Non violence is the highest duty. I am a Hindu because it doesn’t condition my mind with any faith system.

A man/woman who changes his/her birth religion to another religion is a fake and does not value his/her morals, culture and values in life.

Hinduism is the original rather a natural yet a logical and satisfying spiritual, personal and a scientific way of leaving a life..

 

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Mahatma Myth or Human


 

Just look back in history, try to do some research and finding out the real truth and not what we have been brain washed by the Congress and the British/western Media. the following is not my opinion but is an excerpt of what I had received in my mail from one of my friends. We tend to idolise and immortalise people because we do not know the truth  and believe in what is served to us as truth. We feel betrayed and cheated when we are duped by cunning selfish politicians and even our own friends and relatives that we tend to lose faith in our own self.

this post is not intended to hurt any one;s sentiments or feelings. readers are advised to use their own discretion and choice.

 

Most of the Indians are tom fools. Since they have lived many thousand
years under Islamic kingdom
and British kingdom the slave mentality has been imprinted in their
mind and soul.Even today they worship the white skin people.One
example is Sonia Gandhi. This slave mentality force them to worship
Gandhi and Nehru. Both were bloody womanizers. Gandhi was number one
womanizer. If you read his”my experiments with truth”(sathiya Sothanai) you would understand this fact. Even in his old age he slept naked with few young ladies.How could
you term this action.What was the physiological, mental and sexual
feelings of those young ladies. Have you ever thought about the sexual
urge or feelings of those young ladies when they slept by the side of
a naked man.You Indians may say that those young ladies were gifted
souls to slept with Mahathma.What a hypocrisy. How could you call him
as Mahathma. It is pure bullshit. When Britain became pauper state after the second world war they could
not maintain their administration in the Indian subcontinent. To run
their rule they need huge amount of money. Who is going to pay for
their army? Who is going to pay for all their staffs? They need some
country to rescue them from this financial bankruptcy. USA was the
only country came to them to provided aid if they accept U.S.Dollar as
International currency dropping the Sterling Pound from that position.
British Govt.agreed and accepted their aid. Thereby US Dollar become
international currency to trade in the World Bank and IMF.
Due to their insolvency Britain wanted to get rid of all his colony.
That was the main reason UK granted
independence to India, Burma, Malaysia and Srilanka.
Gandhi’s Sathiyag Graha has nothing to do with India’s
Independence.Since British implanted Gandhi
and Nehru in the Indian Congress to manipulate India’s affair after
Independence they gave Gandhi’s
satiya Graha as scapegoat for granting Independence. Media and the
congress party did a huge
propaganda to this effect. India’s present mess due to Gandhi and
Nehru’s policy of islamic appeasement.
Nehru has done nothing to improve the condition of the poor. His main
aim was to be a world leader.
Kashmir was a creation of Nehru for his own ambition to become India’s
Prim minister. If Kashmir join
Pakistan he cannot become India’s Prim Minister.
There is no pure blood in most of the Indians. Muslim blood run in
their vein. Even some Brahmin are included in this list. These are
facts but unpalatable to accept by the majority.

 
here is rejoinder/reply to the above post by on of the readers
 
Dear Mr.Mahesh,

So you are an Intelligent Indian isn’t it? and all else are fools?

Quote
Gandhi was number one womanizer. If you read his”my
experiments with truth”(sathiya Sothanai) you would understand this fact.
Even in his old age he slept naked with few young ladies.How could
you term this action.What was the physiological, mental and sexual
feelings of those young ladies. Have you ever thought about the sexual
urge or feelings of those young ladies when they slept by the side of
a naked man.
Unquote

I have read My experiments with Truth for several times since 13 years
of my age. Toady I am 43 and read both in Tamil and English.

Why haven’t you tried to paste the exact extract from “My experiments
with Truth” for this allegation?

Let it be truth, but who told this truth? the same Mahatma. One need
to have courage to reveal his sexual appetite. While teaching in AMET
University, most of my colleagues were above 60s, and they watch Porno
in office time and they don’t teach in class room just chat and
discuss and come back. No interest in academic, their only interest is
on watching porno and gossiping.

Ask any females, they will tell you the truth, it is far better to
believe a young man then a old man.

Quote
There is no pure blood in most of the Indians. Muslim blood run in
their vein. Even some Brahmin are included in this list.
Unquote

What blood is running in your body? I know only of A, A+, AB+, O, O+
etc in blood group, and for the first time I come to know pure blood,
Indian blood and muslim blood?

Quote
Mahathma.What a hypocrisy. How could you call him as Mahathma. It is
pure bullshit.
Unquote

So you like to be called as Mahatma isn’t it?, always spoken truth,
and honest in every action, not even accepted any gifts whatever of
the worth, fasted for weeks for social cause, sacrificed rich
clothing, treated all equal, no (wealth)security provided to own
children, even forced wife to wash common toilets for the benefit of
public.

Sir, I don’t know you will realise or not about papa karma or punya
karma palan, or at least you can believe in “for every action, there
will be equivalent opposite action”. So abusing the great Mahatma like
this you may incur papa karma palan, so better be watchful of your
thought.

In this topic I have already wrote a mail, please read that.

Talking about past events and using ifs and buts is like what if my
Mother had mustache? Nothing can be redone about past, it is out of
ego, a drive for indetification one talk about past and find fault in
the past events. All events are supposed to happen as it is, even the
present moment will happen on its own, nothing the ego can do about
it. It is most stupidity to think I can do. All doing is by that very
god. Like a movie it is already directed by director and shown you
only to watch and not for any alteration, like wise our past, present
and future is all already directed by the god, we the consciouness
only need to watch.

Get out of this illusion to immerse in past, look at the present, and
be in the present, will keep you in joyful state.

Understand Bhagavad Gita properly.

After reading My experiments with Truth, in which Mahatma writes that
he reads Bhagavad gita every day and whenever he is in trouble some
phase, he reads Bhagavad gita and finds right answer from it. So on
reading these words I was inspired to read Bhagavad gita.

Osho and Ramana Maharishi have appreciated Mahatma for his sincerity
and honesty, what else is required. Ramana Maharishi is that god
himself, who cried on knowing Mahatma dead, such great soul is
Mahatma.

Whoever talk ill of him incur sin or that illness is inside him, he
sees himself, like the one who sees all blue when he wore blue glass.

Try to be honest at least to yourself.


Thanks and best regards
J.Suresh

 
PS:  As 65% of the population in our country is less than 35 year old, it is our duty bring to light about all the myths.

 

 

US and the Forgotten Genocide


http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/30/opinion/nixon-and-kissingers-forgotten-shame.html

The New York Times

September 29, 2013

Nixon and Kissinger’s Forgotten Shame

By GARY J. BASS

PRINCETON, N.J. — BANGLADESH is in fresh turmoil. On Sept. 17, its Supreme Court decided that Abdul Quader Mollah, a leading Islamist politician, should be hanged for war crimes committed during the country’s 1971 war of independence from Pakistan. When he was given a life sentence by a Bangladeshi war-crimes tribunal back in February, tens of thousands of Bangladeshis took to the streets demanding his execution. Since then, more than a hundred people have died in protests and counterprotests.

This may sound remote or irrelevant to Americans, but the unrest has much to do with the United States. Some of Bangladesh’s current problems stem from its traumatic birth in 1971 — when President Richard M. Nixon and Henry A. Kissinger, his national security adviser, vigorously supported the killers and tormentors of a generation of Bangladeshis.

From the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, Pakistan was created as a unified Muslim nation with a bizarrely divided geography: dominant West Pakistan (now simply Pakistan) was separated from downtrodden East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) by a thousand miles of hostile India. Pakistanis joked that their bifurcated country was united by Islam and Pakistan International Airlines. This strange arrangement held until 1970, when Bengali nationalists in East Pakistan triumphed in nationwide elections. The ruling military government, based in West Pakistan, feared losing its grip.

So on March 25, 1971, the Pakistani Army launched a devastating crackdown on the rebellious Bengalis in the east. Midway through the bloodshed, both the C.I.A. and the State Department conservatively estimated that about 200,000 people had died (the Bangladeshi government figure is much higher, at three million). As many as 10 million Bengali refugees fled across the border into India, where they died in droves in wretched refugee camps.

As recently declassified documents and White House tapes show, Nixon and Kissinger stood stoutly behind Pakistan’s generals, supporting the murderous regime at many of the most crucial moments. This largely overlooked horror ranks among the darkest chapters in the entire cold war.

Of course, no country, not even the United States, can prevent massacres everywhere in the world — but this was a close American ally, which prized its warm relationship with the United States and used American weapons and military supplies against its own people.

Nixon and Kissinger barely tried to exert leverage over Pakistan’s military government. In the pivotal days before the crackdown began on March 25, they consciously decided not to warn the Pakistani generals against opening fire on their population. They did not press for respecting the election results, nor did they prod the military to cut a power-sharing deal with the Bengali leadership. They did not offer warnings or impose conditions that might have dissuaded the Pakistani junta from atrocities. Nor did they threaten the loss of American military or economic support after the slaughter began.

Nixon and Kissinger were not just motivated by dispassionate realpolitik, weighing Pakistan’s help with the secret opening to China or India’s pro-Soviet leanings. The White House tapes capture their emotional rage, going far beyond Nixon’s habitual vulgarity. In the Oval Office, Nixon told Kissinger that the Indians needed “a mass famine.” Kissinger sneered at people who “bleed” for “the dying Bengalis.”

They were unmoved by the suffering of Bengalis, despite detailed reporting about the killing from Archer K. Blood, the brave United States consul general in East Pakistan. Nor did Nixon and Kissinger waver when Kenneth B. Keating, a former Republican senator from New York then serving as the American ambassador to India, personally confronted them in the Oval Office about “a matter of genocide” that targeted the Hindu minority among the Bengalis.

After Mr. Blood’s consulate sent an extraordinary cable formally dissenting from American policy, decrying what it called genocide, Nixon and Kissinger ousted Mr. Blood from his post in East Pakistan. Kissinger privately scorned Mr. Blood as “this maniac”; Nixon called Mr. Keating “a traitor.”

India was secretly sponsoring a Bengali insurgency in East Pakistan, and the violence ended only after India and Pakistan went to war in December 1971, with the Indian Army swiftly securing an independent Bangladesh. Economic development and political progress were always going to be difficult there. But Bangladesh’s situation was made tougher by the devastation: lost lives, wrecked infrastructure and radicalized politics.

Bangladesh, despite its recent economic growth, is a haunted country. Part of the tumult centers on the fate of defendants like Abdul Quader Mollah, who face judgment in a series of national war crimes trials for atrocities committed in 1971 by local collaborators with West Pakistan. These trials are popular, but the court has often failed to meet fair standards of due process. Its proceedings have ensnared members of the largest Islamist political party, Jamaat-e-Islami, which is aligned with the main political rival of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.

It will be up to Bangladeshis to fix their country’s rancorous politics, but their task was made harder from the outset by Nixon and Kissinger’s callousness. The legacy of 1971 still stains the reputation of the United States in India as well. If an apology from Kissinger is too much to expect, Americans ought at least to remember what he and Nixon did in those terrible days.

Gary J. Bass, a professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton, is the author, most recently, of “The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide.”


S. Kalyanaraman

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) hari krishnamurthy K. HARIHARAN)”

Modi storm in Delhi, tremors in the country


Modi blows Ananta Vijaya

By Sandhya Jain on September 29, 2013
Modi blows Ananta Vijaya
Narendra Modi today blew the Ananta Vijaya, conch shell of Prince Yudhisthira, to announce his march on Delhi as future ruler, though he promised, with Caesar-like modesty, that he would not be king (main nath nahin hoon, das hoon). Castigating the Prime Minister for weakness in projecting India’s power and dignity abroad, the Congress’ anointed heir for upstart behaviour vis-á-vis the Head of Government, and Indian journalists for pusillanimity before the Pakistan Prime Minister whilst part of the Prime Ministerial delegation to New York, the Gujarat Chief Minister made it clear that nationalism would be non-negotiable under his reign.
At a mammoth, five plus lakh strong, rally organised by the Delhi unit of the Bharatiya Janata Party to launch the party’s campaign for the Assembly election in November, Modi mostly skirted Delhi-centric issues and reserved his fire for the Gandhi family and the political culture it represents. He displayed canny constitutional propriety by supporting the beleaguered Prime Minister against attacks on his person and office, while berating him for weakness.
The Prime Minister recently met the US President in Washington, but instead of showcasing India as a youthful nation and ancient civilisation, he told Barack Obama that India is a poor country. He sounded like film-makers who market India’s poverty abroad and collect awards. Was the Prime Minister talking about poverty which Rahul Gandhi called a “state of mind” or the real poverty of our back lanes, Modi asked.
Claiming the nation fears the outcome of Manmohan Singh’s meeting with the Pakistan Prime Minister, Modi said he was hurt when Nawaz Sharif called Indian and Pakistani journalists for breakfast and called the Indian Prime Minister a “dehati aurat” (village woman) for complaining about terrorism from Pakistani soil (which on September 26 took 12 Indian lives in two incidents at Kathua and Samba in Jammu & Kashmir). India, he thundered, will not tolerate this insult to the nation and the Prime Minister, “whatever our internal differences may be”. Nawaz Sharif could have the temerity to speak like this about Manmohan Singh, who is senior to him even in age, because the Congress vice-president has, in village parlance, “Pradhan Mantri ki pagdi uchaal di hai” (insulted him) and that is a sin (paap).
Modi challenged Indian mediapersons present to explain why they did not walk out when the Prime Minister was thus insulted. A possible reason could be that the Indian media, which the Vajpayee Government hosted at Agra, snuggled up to then President Parvez Musharraf when he made equally outrageous comments about Jammu & Kashmir. Modi has signalled an end to tolerance of such malfeasance by the media.
The BJP’s prime ministerial hopeful said the Indian people sincerely hope Manmohan Singh will show Nawaz Sharif his place and ask when Pakistan-occupied Kashmir will be returned to India, talk about terrorism and the constant killing of our jawans, and particularly try to bring back the severed head of our jawan whose mother and widow are still weeping.
The great dilemma before the nation today is between parivar shahi and lok shahi; the battle is to decide if India will run according to the Constitution (samvidhan) or the whim of the shehzade (Rahul Gandhi). Can the UPA allies answer this question – whom would they like to work under? Modi reminded his audience that when the Supreme Court decision on debarring convicted leaders came, the BJP supported it and made its stand clear at the all party meeting and in the meeting with the President. Disapproving of the manner in which Rahul Gandhi junked his own party-led Government’s Ordinance to save convicted legislators, the Gujarat strongman said that in both the Delhi and the 2014 general elections, it was time to get rid of the Dirty Team and bring in the Dream Team.
If one were to search for the signature theme of Narendra Modi’s Operation Red Fort, it would be “mujhe vishwas hai” (I have confidence), a far cry from the inane mumblings of a leader who thought India was nothing and had to be made something — “humme Bharat ko banana hai” (we have to make India this or that). In less than a decade, he pointed out, India will celebrate 75 years of freedom (Amrut Mahotsav) and we must decide what heights we want to scale by then. The UPA, he charged, has no vision at all, and every successive Budget has hovered around sensex up or down, income tax up or down, import relief, with no grand picture.
Armed as always with statistics to prove his points, Modi said the UPA brags only about achievements made by State Governments, but its own performance is dismal. The Railways in 1980 had 61,000 km tracks and 31 years later only 3,000 km of lines have been added, whereas China in the same period added 11,000 km of railway tracks from a baseline 50,000 km and their speed and quality equals Japan.
The UPA in an affidavit before the Supreme Court admitted that the NDA in six years added 24,000 km of roads to the national highways but UPA in nine years has added only 16000 km. The Aviation sector in the past seven years has seen unprecedented corruption, losses of Rs 53,000 crore and a debt of Rs 1 lakh crore; but it gave a package of Rs 30,000 crore to the private airlines. Delhi is starved for power and stations that can generate 20,000 MW are ready but non-functional because the regime has failed to allot gas and coal and set up transmission lines, because without money no file is signed.
Striking a personal note, Narendra Modi said it is India’s greatness that a boy who used to sell tea in train cabins to make ends meet has today been elevated by the people to this stage. As the crowds went hysterical, he said, “I never dreamt to be a ruler, I am a sevak”. He exhorted them to “see my past and see my work” and “trust my promise that neither Narendra Modi nor the BJP will ever destroy your trust, let you down; we will live for your dreams, that is our mission”.

He lambasted the dysfunctional regimes in Delhi where the Chief Minister accepts no responsibility for anything that goes wrong, including the safety of young girls, and New Delhi which is paralysed between the Government and the Mother-Son rule. The UPA is drowning in corruption, but remains addicted to “Gandhi-chaap”, the high denomination notes which are being collected in the tonnes. The nation, he concluded, is yearning for Su-raaj, good governance.

http://www.niticentral.com/2013/09/29/modi-blows-ananta-vijaya-139350.html


S. Kalyanaraman

 

 

Narendra Modi speech at Trichy


Subject: [TamilBJP] திருச்சியில் நரேந்திர மோதி உரை: ஒரு பார்வை
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திரு. நரேந்திர மோதி திருச்சியில் உரையாற்றி முடித்து விட்டார். சம்பிரதாயமாக தமிழில் ஆரம்பித்து, பிறகு ஹிந்தியில் மிக உணர்ச்சிகரமாக பேசினார். நடுவில் சில பகுதிகள் மட்டும் ஆங்கிலத்தில் இருந்தன. இயல்பாகவே மிகச் சிறந்த பேச்சாளர் மோதி. இந்த உரையும் அதற்கு விதிவிலக்கல்ல. தமிழக பாஜக தலைவர் ஹெச்.ராஜா நன்றாகவே மொழியாக்கம் செய்தார். ஆனால் மோதியின் குரலில் இருந்த உணர்ச்சிகள், ஏற்ற இறக்கங்கள் ஆகியவை ராஜாவின் மென்குரல் பேச்சில் கொஞ்சம் நீர்த்து விட்டன என்று தான் சொல்ல வேண்டும்.
 
தொடக்கத்தில் இன்று பாகிஸ்தான் பயங்கரவாதிகளின் தாக்குதலுக்குப் பலியான நமது ராணுவ வீரர்களுக்கு அஞ்சலி செலுத்தும் வகையில் இரண்டு நிமிடம் உட்கார்ந்த இடத்தில் உட்கார்ந்த படியே மௌனம் அனுஷ்டிக்கக் கோரினார் மோதி.  பேச்சை ஆரம்பிப்பதற்கு முன்,  அலைபாயும், கூச்சல் போடும் கூட்டத்தை அமைதிப் படுத்தி தன் நிலைக்குக் கொண்டு வந்து பேச்சில் கவனம் குவிக்கவும் இது உதவியது. பேசப் போகிற விஷயம் கைதட்டலுக்கானது மட்டுமல்ல, கவனத்திற்கானது என்று அறிவிப்பது போலிருந்தது இது.
 
modi_trichy”கம்பனும் வள்ளுவனும் பாரதியும் பிறந்த தமிழ் மண்ணிற்கு வருகை தருவதை மதிப்புக்குரிய விஷயமாகக் கருதுகிறேன். தமிழ் மக்களிடம் மூன்று நல்ல குணங்கள் உண்டு – கடும் உழைப்பு, சிரத்தை, ராஜகம்பீரம் & விசுவாசம் (royal & loyal). தமிழகத்தின் பொருட்கள் தேசிய, உலக சந்தைகளில் தரம் வாய்ந்தவையாக உள்ளன. தமிழ் மக்களின் உழைப்பினால் தமிழ்நாடு இந்தியாவின் சிறந்த மாநிலங்களில் ஒன்றாகத் திகழ்கிறது, தமிழ் மிகவும் பழமையும் பெருமையும் வாய்ந்த மொழி” – இவ்வாறு தமிழ்ப் பண்பாட்டுக்கும் மக்களுக்கும் புகழாரம் சூட்டித் தனது உரையைத் தொடங்கினார்.
 
அடுத்து, குஜராத்துக்கும் தமிழகத்துக்கும் இடையே உள்ள உறவுகளை, ஒற்றுமைகளைப் பட்டியலிட்டார். ”இரண்டும் கடற்கரைகள் கொண்ட மாநிலங்கள். பருத்தியை அதிகமாக விளைவிக்கிறது குஜராத், அதைப் பெருமளவு நுகர்ந்து ஆடையாக நெய்கிறது தமிழகம். குஜராத்தி காந்தியின் மனசாட்சியாக தமிழகத்தின் ராஜாஜி இருந்தார்.  தமிழ் மக்கள் குஜராத்திற்குப் புலம்பெயர்ந்து அதன் வளர்ச்சிக்கு உதவுவது போலவே, சௌராஷ்டிரர்களான குஜராத்திகள் தமிழ்நாட்டில் பல காலமாக இருக்கிறார்கள்.  பாலில் சர்க்கரை கலந்தது போன்ற இனிய உறவு அது. இங்கு சென்னையில் குஜராத்திகள் அதிகமாக வசிக்கும் சௌகார்பேட்டை போல  குஜராத்தில் தமிழர்கள் அதிகமாக வசிக்கும் மணிநகர். எனது சட்டசபைத் தொகுதி அது. அங்குள்ள தமிழர்கள் தான் தொடர்ந்து வாக்களித்து என்னைத் தேர்ந்தெடுத்து வருகிறார்கள்” என்று  நெகிழ்ச்சியுடன் குறிப்பிட்டார்.
 
இது ஒரு சாதாரண அரசியல்வாதி பேசும் பேச்சல்ல. இந்த தேசத்தின் மீது, மண்ணின் மீது, காலகாலமாக இருந்து வரும் அதன் சமூக, கலாசார பந்தங்களின் மீது ஆழமான பிடிப்பும், அன்பும் கொண்ட ஒருவரின் பேச்சு. எண்ணமும், செயலும் எல்லாம் இந்த தேசத்தை ஒற்றுமைப் படுத்துவதற்காகவே, இந்த தேசமக்களின் நல்வாழ்விற்காகவே இயங்கும் ஒரு தேசபக்தனின் பேச்சு. எத்தனை உரை எழுத்தாளர்களை வைத்துக் கொண்டாலும் காங்கிரசின் முட்டாள் இளவரனிடம் இருந்தோ, அல்லது மற்ற  சுயநல அரசியல்வியாதிகளின் வாயிலிருந்தோ இப்படி ஒரு பேச்சு சுட்டுப் போட்டாலும் வராது.
 
குஜராத்தின் மீனவர்களை பாகிஸ்தான் பிடித்துச் சென்று சித்ரவதை செய்வதையும், தமிழக மீனவர்களை இலங்கை அதே போன்று செய்வதையும் குறித்து அடுத்துப் பேசினார்.. இந்த நாடுகள் இப்படித் துளிர்த்துப் போய் விட்டதற்கு இடையே உள்ள கடல் நீர் காரணமல்ல,  தில்லியில் உள்ள பலவீனமான அரசும் அதன் கொள்கைகளுமே காரணம்.  இலங்கை அரசு தமிழக மீனவர்களைக் கொல்கிறது. பாகிஸ்தானிய ராணுவம் நமது ராணுவ வீரர்களைக் கொல்கிறது.. பயங்கரவாதம் அபபவியான பொதுமக்களைக் கொல்கிறது, பூடான், இலங்கை, நேபாளம் போன்ற சிறிய நாடுகள் கூட இந்தியாவை மதிப்பதில்லை. இதற்கெல்லாம் காரணமான அந்த பலவீனமான அரசை அகற்ற வேண்டும் – என்று முழங்கினார்.
 
அமெரிக்கா தனது மண்ணில் அநியாயமாக உளவறிந்து வருவதை அறிந்து, அந்த நாட்டுடனான ராஜரீக தொடர்புகள் அனைத்தையும் பிரேசில் துண்டிக்கிறது. தனது நாட்டின் தேசதுரோகியான ஸ்னோடன் என்பவருக்கு ரஷ்யா அடைக்கலம் கொடுத்ததால், தனது ரஷ்யப் பயணத்தையே அமெரிக்க அதிபர் ஒபாமா ரத்து செய்தார். இதிலிருந்து நாம் என்ன பாடம் கற்றோம்? நமது பிரதமரோ பயங்கரச் செயல்கள் நடந்து கொண்டிருக்கும் போதும் கூட தொடர்ந்து பாகிஸ்தானிய அரசுடன் பேச்சுவார்த்தை நடத்திக் கொண்டிருக்கிறார், அதன் அரசியல் தலைவர்களூடன் உட்கார்ந்து சிக்கன் பிரியாணி சாப்பிட்டுக் கொண்டிருக்கிறார்..  இந்த செயலை நீங்கள் அங்கீகரிக்கிறீர்களா? என்று கூட்டத்தைப் பார்த்து கேட்டார்.  இல்லை என்று பெரும் எதிரொலி வந்தது.
 
அடுத்து, காங்கிரஸ் அரசு ஏற்படுத்தியுள்ள பொருளாதார சீரழிவு குறித்து பேசினார்.
 
narendra-modi-trichy-295“இதே நிலை நீடித்தால் இன்னும் 5 ஆண்டுகள் நீடித்தால் இப்போது நல்ல வேலையில் இருக்கும் இளைஞர்கள் சாலையோரங்களில் பிச்சை எடுக்கும் நிலைக்குத் தள்ளப் படுவார்கள் என்று பொருளாதார நிபுணர்கள் கூறுவதை சுட்டிக்  காட்டினார். ”அரசின் தவறான கொள்கைகளால் தொழில்கள் அழிகின்றன.  பெரும் வணிக முதலைகளுக்கு உதவும் அரசு, சிறிய தொழில் முனைவர்கள் வாங்கிய கடனைத் திருப்பித் தர முடியாமல் போனால் அவர்களது பெயர்களை செய்தித் தாளில் விள்ம்பரப் படுத்தி அவர்களை அவமதித்து தற்கொலை வரை கொண்டு தள்ளுகிறது.  இந்தக் கொள்கைகள் மாற்றப்பட்டு  லட்சக்கணக்கான கோடிக்கணக்கான சிறீய தொழில்கள் வளர்க்கப் பட்டு அதன் மூலம் நமது இளைஞர்கள் மதிப்புக்குரிய வேலைவாய்ப்புகளைப் பெற்று வாழ்க்கையில் முன்னேற்றம் அடையும் வகையில் எங்களது அரசின் திட்டங்கள் இருக்கும்.
 
ஊழல் நமது பொதுவாழ்வை அழிக்கிறது. ஏழை மக்களைச் சென்று சேர வேண்டிய பணம் ஊழலில் வீணாகிறது. ஆதார் அட்டை என்ற திட்டம் குறித்த ஐயங்களை மூன்று வருடம் முன்பே நான் தெரிவித்தேன், அதே விஷயங்களை இப்போது உச்ச நீதிமன்றம் மத்திய அரசிடம் கேட்கிறது.  பண விரயம் மட்டுமல்ல, நாட்டின் பாதுகாப்பையே கேள்விக் குறியாக்கும் வகையில் இந்த ஆதார் அட்டை முறைகேடுகள் உள்ளன.
 
காங்கிரசின் அரசியல் எப்போதும் மக்களைப் பிளப்பதாக, பிரிப்பதாக இருக்கீறது. சாதி, மதம், கிராம – நகர வேறுபாடு என்று பல முனைகளில் தொடர்ந்து மக்களைப் பிரித்தாளும் கொள்கைகளை காங்கிரஸ் செயல்படுத்தி வருகீறது.  காங்கிரசைக் கலைக்க வேண்டும் என்று அன்று காந்தி சொன்னதை உண்மையாக்கும் வகையில் நாம் தேசத்திற்கு காங்கிரசிடமிருந்து விடுதலை அளிக்க வேண்டும்” என்றார்.
 
”இந்த மைதானம் நிறைந்து, அதற்குப் பின்னுள்ள பாலத்தைத் தாண்டியுள்ள மைதானமும் நிறையும் அளவுக்கு இளைஞர்களின் கூட்டம் இங்கு கூடியுள்ளது. அந்த இளைஞர்களை என்னால் பார்க்க முடியவில்லை.. மைதானம் சிறியது, அதில் இடமில்லாமல் போகலாம்., ஆனால் என் இதயத்தில் எப்போதும் உங்கள் அனைவருக்கும் இடம் உண்டு.
 
தமிழக அரசியலையும் தேசிய அரசியலையும் அறிந்தவர்கள் இளைஞர்களின் இந்தக் கூட்டத்தைப் பார்த்தே இங்கு எவ்வளவு பெரிய மாற்றம் நிகழ்ந்து கொண்டிருக்கீறது என்பதைக் காண முடியும், பல முறை தமிழ் நாட்டுக்கு வந்திருக்கிறேன்,. இது போன்ற ஒரு இளைஞர் பெருந்திரளை இது வரை கண்டதில்லை, இங்கு வந்த அனைவருக்கும், ஏற்பாடு செய்த இளைஞர் அணியினருக்கும் மிக மிக நன்றி.
 
நீங்கள் எங்கள் மீது நம்பிக்கை வைத்திருக்கிறீர்கள், அந்த நம்பிக்கையை ஒருபோதும் உடைக்க மாட்டோம் என்று உறுதியளிக்கிறேன். எங்களது சக்தி அனைத்தையும் உங்களது முன்னேற்றத்திற்காக, நாட்டின் வளர்ச்சிக்காக பயன்படுத்துவோம். நீங்கள் எனக்கும் பாஜகவுக்கும் புதிய நம்பிக்கையையும் வலிமை உணர்வையும் ஏற்படுத்தியுள்ளீர்கள். வந்தே மாதரம்” என்று கூறி உரையை நிறைவு செய்தார்.
 
இறுதியில் அனைவரும் முஷ்டிகளை உயர்த்தி வந்தே மாதரம் என்று முழங்கச் செய்தது சிலிர்ப்பூட்டுவதாக இருந்தது.
 
சிறப்பான நிகழ்ச்சி.  அருமையான உரை. தனிப்பட்ட அளவில், மோதி இன்னும் சில விஷயங்களையும் பேசியிருக்கலாம் என்று எனக்குத் தோன்றியது. சேலம் ஆடிட்டர் ரமேஷ் உள்ளிட்ட தமிழக பாஜக தலைவர்கள் பயங்கரவாதிகளால் படுகொலை செய்யப் பட்டது குறித்து கட்டாயம் பேசப்பட்டிருக்க வேண்டும். பொன். ராதாகிருஷ்ணன் இலேசாக தன் பேச்சில் இதைச் சுட்டிக் காட்டினார்,  தமிழகத்தின் மின்சாரத் தட்டுப்பாடு,   இலங்கையில் தேர்தல் முடிந்த நிலையில் தமிழர்கள் மறுவாழ்வு குறித்த எதிர்பார்ப்புகள் ஆகிய விஷயங்கள் குறித்து ராஜ்நாத் சிங் பேசினார். அது போதாது. மோதியும் இந்த விஷயங்களைப் பேசியிருக்க வேண்டும்.
 
மொத்தத்தில் இது ஒரு மிக வெற்றிகரமான நிகழ்வு. மோதியின் திருச்சி விஜயம் கட்டாயம் தமிழக அரசியலில் ஒரு மாற்றத்தைக் கொண்டு வரும் என்றும், மோதி பிரதமராகப் போகும் வரலாற்றுத் தருணத்தில் தமிழகமும் தனக்குரிய பங்களிப்பை நல்கும் என்றும் நம்புவோம்.
 
நிகழ்ச்சியின் ஒளிப்பதிவை இந்த இணைப்புகளில் காணலாம்.

 

Fake encounters of the Financial Kind


 

Why has PC not answered Dr. Subramanian Swamy? Why is PC asking Finance Ministry to file defamation case against Dinamani.

SoniaG UPA, on the road to economy crash. Remove Rajan, RBI Governor — Dr. Subramanian Swamy
Indian economy in crisis. Nationalize bank accounts of Indian citizens in 70 countries. Confiscate P-Notes. — Dr. Subramanian Swamy
PC aggrieved. Centre files defamation case against Dinamani.

PC’s fake encounter with facts
Kishore Trivedi on September 23, 2013

PC’s fake encounter with facts
Arrogance blended with self-denial is a deadly cocktail and who better than our Finance Minister can demonstrate the after effects better! The fact that the Finance Minister and the UPA are living in a dream world was evident when he released a statement before going to the National Integration Council meeting, which questioned Narendra Modi’s claims of the economic growth under Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s NDA and the economic decline under the present UPA.
Chidambaram asked Modi not to stage ‘fake encounters’ with facts when the truth is that the Finance Minister is fooling the entire nation by giving half-baked facts and incomplete analysis. I ask the Finance Minister five questions that will puncture his attempt to mislead the people of India.
Question 1
 Can Chidambaram deny that when UPA took charge (he was Finance Minister even back then), the growth rate of India was 8.6 per cent? 
This was the result of a commendable effort of the Vajpayee Government considering the economic mess they inherited in 1998 and the severe economic sanctions by the world community in the aftermath of Pokhran. Placing India’s self respect first and backing it up by a grand vision, the Vajpayee Government left the economy at its peak with the growth rate of 8.6 per cent in 2004.
Question 2
Will Chidambaram also deny that the growth rate for 2012-2013, a year when he was Finance Minister, was barely five per cent?
It is alright to share year by year growth rate figures of the NDA rule Mr Finance Minister but did you bother to check the growth rate of the nation in the last year itself, which stood at a mere 4.98 per cent? How did Chidambaram forget this inconvenient but obvious truth right under his watch?
Question 3
Is Chidambaram aware of the Q4 figure for 2012-2013 and Q1 figure for 2013-2014?
It may be worthwhile to remind our Harvard educated Finance Minister that last quarter growth for 2012-2013 stood at 4.8 per cent and the figure dropped even lower during the first quarter of this year at 4.4 per cent. In fact, Narendra Modi was very kind not to mention the quarterly figures for this year this year, preferring to stick to the Q4 figures of last year, which are marginally better.
Question 4
Is Chidambaram aware of what economic think tanks and independent external agencies are saying about our economy?
It is not only the common man and woman or Narendra Modi that is rightly worried about the economy. Various national and international agencies of repute have expressed concern about the economic gloom prevalent across the nation? If he is not, I would love to enlighten the anti-encounter specialist Chidambaram.
Standard & Poor’s has said that the chances of India’s ratings downgrade look much higher compared to other emerging market economies. Further downgrade would even push it to ‘junk’ status. After the quarterly GDP growth at dismal 4.4 per cent, HSBC forecasted GDP growth for FY14 at just four per cent, a low not recorded since the 1990s. Bank of America went to the extent of saying that there is no hope the government can change things the way they are currently. According to the Reuters report, almost all global banks are skeptical about India’s growth prospects. Is this also the NDA’s doing?
Question 5
Does Chidambaram know where the NDA and UPA stand on job creation?
One of the factors that determine the performance of the Government is the opportunity it created for the people.
NSSO statistics (I presume they were not fudged by the NDA, Chidambaram) clearly suggest that the number of jobs created from 1999-2004 was 60.1 million whereas the figure between 2004-2011 is a poor 14.6 million (the figure for UPA 1, which PC calls the golden period growth is 2.7 million). These figures only speak for themselves!
Thus, instead of setting his own house in order the Finance Minister has done everything else under the sun. Few remember that the economic ruin of India began in 2008 thanks to mindless spending.
When the NDA came to power the growth rate was 4.8 per cent. Today we are yet again close to that figure in 2013 after a golden period starting from 1999, whose efforts were seen in the growth rate during 2003 and 2004.
Do we want to go back to 1997? And by the way, do you know who the Finance Minister that time was…

http://www.niticentral.com/2013/09/23/pcs-fake-encounter-with-facts-136593.html


S. Kalyanaraman

 

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JUSTICE V R KRISHNA IYER ENDORSES NARENDRA MODI FOR PM


I consider it my over-riding solemn public duty to forward to my friends and other citizens committed to the sacred cause of upholding the honour and dignity of Bharat Mata, the following appropriate and timely Statement issued by Justice V.R Krishna Iyer, who is probably the oldest living Judge in India. Secular seer, venerable and profound, Justice V.R Krishna Iyer has truly become the Bhishma Pitamah in India’s public life. As a public spirited person totally committed to the cause of upholding the glory and grandeur of Bharat Mata, Justice V.R Krishna Iyer has become a living legend in his life time. My reverential salutations to him!
Our great and ancient nation has been brought to the verge of total collapse and irretrievable ruin by the manoeuvres, machinations and manipulations of theFirangi Memsahib Sonia Gandhi and her Congress Party of marauders, looters and carpetbaggers. We have a shameless and spineless Prime Minister, a corrupt, shameless and spineless Finance Minister. We have a listless and lifeless Home Minister. The rest of the Union Council of Ministers are in the abject thraldom of the Firangi Memsahib Sonia Gandhi who controls the purse strings of the Sonia Congress Party — a Party which functions on a 24*7 basis for the survival of Pakistan and the total extinction of Bharat Varsha. In this desperate situation the only hope for our Country lies in throwing out the Sonia Congress Gang in the forthcoming 2014 Lok Sabha Elections. All of us should work together for ensuring the magnificent victory of BJP and its allies in the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections.
The Era of National Resurgence and National Renaissance would get inaugurated next year with Shri Narendra Modi becoming the Prime Minister of India and Dr Subramanian Swamy the Finance Minister.  Just as Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) fought the Nazi hordes, the Italian Fascists and their Jihadi(Turkestan/Albanian Muslim) Allies, Shri Narendra Modi is fighting a coalition of anti-Indian forces led by the Firangi Memsahib Sonia Gandhi.
In this context, the following Vision of Resurgent India proclaimed by Mahadev Gobind Ranade (1842-1901) in 1898 comes to my mind:
“With buoyant hope, with liberated Manhood, with a faith that never shirks duty, with a sense of justice that deals fairly to all, with unclouded intellect and all her powers fully cultivated, and lastly, a love that overleaps all bounds, Renovated India will take her proper rank among the nations of the world, and be the Master of the Situation and of her own Destiny. This is the cherished home, this is the Promised Land. Happy are they who see it in distant vision; happier those who are permitted to work and clear the way onto it; and happiest those who live to see it with their own eyes and tread upon the holy soil once more.”
 
 
NARENDRA MODI—A GOOD CANDIDATE FOR PRIME MINISTERSHIP OF INDIA
 
          I gather from the media that Shri. Narendra Modi, presently Chief Minister of Gujarat is declared to be a candidate of BJP for Prime Ministership of India. Without reference to his politics and as an independent myself, I wish him success since I am of the view that he has positive qualities of nationalism and comity of cosmic dimension.  I take the view that we should not have nuclear power in India.  ‘Nuclear never and Solar ever’ is my policy.  Japan, the victim of Tsunami of nuclear danger and earthquake has close down its last nuclear project according to the media report.  Narendra Modi stands for solar power.  No other State in India has developed solar power on a grand scale as Narendri Modi’s Gujarat has done.  Mahatma Gandhi and the Constitution of India are against alcoholism which is a multiple evil and ruinous for the Indian people.  The only State which insists on prohibition and has put it into practice is Narendra Modi’s Gujarat.  So far as I can gather corruption in public life has been eliminated in Gujarat.  As a man his integrity deserves great praise.  On the whole his administration deserves national support and so I wish him the rare opportunity to be the Prime Minister of India who will implement the great principle of swaraj and eradicate poverty.  I am a socialist by conviction and support Modi on the assumption that he too is a socialist and an advocate of human rights and Indian fraternity, justice, social, economic and political of the Gandhian ethos.
September 24, 2013                                    V.R. KRISHNA IYER


S. Kalyanaraman

 

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ஒளவையார் அருளிய விநாயகர் அகவல் (மூலமும் உரையும்)


விநாயகர் அகவலும் பொதுவான பொருளும்:-

விநாயகர் அகவல் என்னும் நூல் ஔவைப் பிராட்டியாரால்அருளிச் செய்யப்பட்டது. இது தமிழ்ச் சைவர்களின் நித்திய பாராயண நூல்களில் ஒன்றாக விளங்குகின்றது. தமிழர்கள் கைக்கொண்டொழுகிய வழிபாட்டுநெறியோடு யோகநெறியையும் விளக்கியருளும் சிறப்பு வாய்ந்தது.

இக்கருத்துக்கள் சைவசித்தாந்தப் பேராசிரியர் திரு இரா.வையாபுரியார் அவர்கள் விநாயகர் அகவலுக்கு எழுதியுள்ள பேருரையினின்றும் திரட்டப் பட்டது.

‘சொல்லிய பாட்டின் பொருளுணர்ந்து சொல்லுவார் செல்வர், சிவபுரத்திலுள்ளார்’. விநாயகர் அகவலைப் பாராயணம் செய்யும்போது இப்பொருள்கள் நினைவுக்கு வந்து பாராயணத்தைப் பயனுடையதாக்கும்.

இந்நூல் 15ஆவது வரி ‘அற்புதம் நின்ற கற்பகக் களிறே’ என்று கூறுவதால் இந்நூலில் கூறப்படும் விநாயகப் பெருமானின் திரு நாமம் ‘கற்பக விநாயகர்’ என்பது.

அவர் தன் நிலையில்,

• சொல்லுக்கும் நினைவுக்கும் எட்டாதவர்.
• துரியநிலையில் இருப்பவர்.
• ஞானமே சொரூபமாக இருப்பவர்.

இது அவருடைய சொரூப நிலை அல்லது உண்மை நிலை எனப்படும். இது பரசிவமாக இருக்கும் நிலை.

ஞானமே சொரூபமாக உடைய பரசிவம் தன்னை அடியவர்கள் வழிபட்டு உய்வதற்காகவும் அடியவர்களுக்கு அருள் செய்வதற்காகவும் அற்புதமான வடிவம் கொண்டு காட்சிக்கும் நினைப்புக்கும் சொல்லுக்கும் எட்டுபவராக எளிவந்து அருளும். அத்தகைய அற்புதக் கோலங்களில் ஒன்று விநாயக வடிவம். ( அற்புதம் – அற்புதம் என்பது உலகில் எங்கும் காணப்படாது இயற்கைக்கு மாறாக நிகழ்வது. இது திருவருளால் மட்டுமே நிகழ்வது.)

அவ்வற்புத வடிவமானது:

• தாமரை மலர்போன்ற மென்மையும் அழகும் மலர்ச்சியும் உடைய திருவடிகள்.
• அத்திருவடிகளில் இனிய ஒலியெழுப்பும் சிலம்பு.
• பொன்னரைஞாண்.
• அழகிய பட்டாடை அணிந்த இடுப்பு
• பேழை (பெட்டி) போன்ற வயிறு.
• பெரிய வலிமை மிக்க தந்தம்.
• யானைமுகம்.
• முகத்தில் அணிந்த சிந்தூரம்.
• ஐந்துகைகள்.
• அங்குசம், பாசம் என்னும் ஆயுதங்கள்.
• நீலமேனி (நீலம் – கருமை)
• தொங்குகின்ற வாய்.
• நான்கு தோள்.
• மூன்று கண்.
• கன்னத்தில் மதநீர் வடிந்த சுவடு.
• இருபெரிய செவிகள்.
• பொற்கிரீடம்
• பூணூல் புரள்கின்ற மார்பு.

இது குணங்குறி அற்ற பரசிவம் உயிர்களுக்கு அருளும் பொருட்டு மேற்கொள்ளும் வடிவங்களுள் ஒன்று. அதனால் தடத்த வடிவம் அல்லது தடத்த நிலை எனப்படும். இறைவடிவங்களைத் தரிசித்துத் தொழும்போது திருவடியிலிருந்து தொடங்கி உச்சிவரைக் கண்டு திருமேனியில் விழியைப் பதித்தல் முறை. திருவடி என்பது திருவருள். திருவருளால் இக்காட்சி நடைபெறுகின்றது என்பது பொருள்.

• அவருக்கு நிவேதனப் பொருள்கள் முப்பழம்.
• ஊர்தி மூஷிகம்
• அவர் தன்னை வழிபடும் அடியவர்களுக்குத் தாய்போன்ற அன்புடையவர்.
• எப்பொழுதும் அடியவர்களைப் பிரியாமல், அவர்களுடைய அறிவுக்கு அறிவாய், அறிவினுள்ளே இருந்து அவர்களுக்கு வாழ்வில் வழிகாட்டுவார்.
• அடியவர்களுக்குப் பக்குவம் வந்த காலத்தில் குருவடிவாக வெளிப்பட்டு வந்து, முன் நின்று தீக்கை செய்து உண்மை ஞானம் புகட்டுவார்.
• அடியவர்களை யோகநெறியிலும் ஞானநெறியிலும் நிற்கச் செய்வார்.
• ஆணவம், கன்மம், மாயை என்னும் மும்மலப் பிணிப்பிலிருந்து விடுபடச் செய்வார்
• நின்மல அவத்தை (அருளுடன் கூடிநிற்கும் நிலை) யில் நிற்கச் செய்வார்.
• அளவில்லாத ஆனந்த அனுபவம் விரியச் செய்வார்.
• இறுதியில் தன்னைப்போலத் தன் அடியவர்களையும் என்றும் மாறாத அழியாத நிலையில் (தத்துவநிலை) நிற்கச் செய்வார்.

விநாயகப் பெருமான் உணர்த்தும் ஞானநெறி

• குருவாக வந்து தீக்கை அருளுகின்றார்

• இதுவரையிலும் அவ்வுயிர் செத்துப் பிறந்து உழல்வதற்குக் காரணமான மயக்க அறிவைப் போக்குகின்றார்.

• திருவைந்தெழுத்தை (‚ பஞ்சாக்கரம்) நெஞ்சில் பதிவிக்கின்றார்.

• உள்ளத்தில் வெளிப்பட்டு விளங்கி நிற்கின்றார்.

• பதி, பசு, பாசம் எனும் அனாதியான முப்பொருள்களின் இயல்பினை விளக்கி உரைக்கின்றார். சஞ்சிதம் எனும் பழவினையைப் போக்குகின்றார். ஞானோபதேசம் செய்கின்றார்.

• உபதேசித்த ஞானப்பொருளில் ஐயம், திரிபு ஆகியன நேரிடாமல் தெளிந்த உணர்வு உண்டாமாறு அருளுகின்றார்.

• ஐம்புலன்கள் விடயங்களை நோக்கி ஓடி விருப்பு வெறுப்புக் கொண்டு துன்புறாதபடி புலனடக்கம் உண்டாவதற்குரிய வழியினைக் காட்டியருளுகின்றார்.

• உடம்பில் உள்ள தத்துவக் கருவிகள் எவ்வாறு ஒடுங்குகின்றன என்பதை அறிவிக்கின்றார்.

• பிராரத்த வினை தாக்காதவாறு காப்பாற்றுகின்றார்.

• ஆணவம லத்தால் வரும் துன்பத்தைப் போக்குகின்றார்.

• ஆன்மாவை நின்மல நிலைக்கு உயர்த்தி நின்மலதுரியம் நின்மலதுரியாதீதம் என்னும் நிலைகளில் திருவருளுடனும் சிவத்துடனும் கலந்து நிற்கச் செய்கின்றார்.

குருவாக வந்த விநாயகப் பெருமான் இவ்வாறு ஞானநெறியை அருளி, இந்த ஞானநெறியில் நெகிழ்ந்து விடாது உறுதியாய் நிற்பதற்குரிய யோகநெறியினையும் அறிவித்தருளுகின்றார்.

• ஒன்பது வாயில்களை உடைய உடம்பில் உள்ள ஐம்புலன்கள் ஆகிய கதவுகளை அடைத்து மனம் உள்ளே (அகமுகப்பட்டு) நிற்கச் செய்கிறார்.

• இதனால் ஆதாரயோகம் மேற்கொள்ளும் முறையினைத் தெளிவிக்கின்றார்.

• மவுனசமாதி நிலையினை அடையச் செய்கின்றார்.

• இடநாடி, வலநாடி, சுழுமுனா நாடி என்னும் நாடிகளின் வழியாய் மூச்சுக்காற்று இயங்கும் முறையினைத் தெரிவிக்கின்றார்.

• சுழுமுனா நாடி மூலாதாரத்திலிருந்து கபாலம் வரையிலும் (தலையுச்சி) சென்று நிற்கும் நிலையினைத் தெரிவிக்கின்றார்.

• அவ்வாறு செல்லும் வழியில் உள்ள அக்கினி மண்டலம், சூரிய மண்டலம், சந்திர மண்டலம் என்னும் பகுதிகளின் இயல்பைத் தெரிவிக்கின்றார்.

• மூலாதாரத்தில் உள்ள ஹம்ச மந்திரம், குண்டலினி சத்தி, பிரணவ மந்திரம் என்பனவற்றின் இயல்பினைத் தெரிவிக்கின்றார்.

• இடகலை, பிங்கலை என்னும் மூச்சுக்காற்ரினால் குண்டலினி என்னும் சத்தியை எழுப்பிச் சுழுமுனைநாடி வழியாக மேலே கபாலம் வரையிலும் பிரணவமந்திரத்துடன் ஏற்றும் முறையினையும் தெரிவிக்கின்றார்.

• இவ்வகையில் பிரணவமந்திரம் பலகலைக்களாகப் பிரிக்கப்பட்டு, (மூன்று, ஐந்து, பன்னிரண்டு, பதினாறு) உடம்பில் அங்கங்கே நிறுத்தித் தியானிக்கப்படுவதாகிய பிராசாத யோகம் என்னும் நெறியினையும் கற்பிக்கின்றார்.

• இப்பிராசாத யோகத்தினால் ஆன்மா பிரமரந்திரம் (தலையுச்சி) என்னும் இடத்தையும் கடந்து மேலே துவாதசாந்தப் பெருவெளி என்னும் இடம்வரையிலும் சென்று சிவத்துடன் கலந்து நின்று சிவானந்தம் அனுபவிக்கச் செய்கின்றார்.

• இவ்வாறு ஆறாதார யோகம், அட்டாங்க யோகம், பிராசாத யோகம் என்னும் முறைகளில் நிற்கச் செய்து மனோலயம் அடையச் செய்கின்றார்.

• இதனால் உண்டாகும் அகக் காட்சியினால் ஆன்மாவின் இயல்பு, உடம்பின் இயல்பு, மாயாமலம் கன்மமலம் ஆணவமலம் என்பனவற்றின் உண்மையியல்பு ஆகியவற்றை அறிய வைக்கின்றார்.

• சப்தப்பிரபஞ்சம் (ஒலியுலகம்) அர்த்தப்பிரபஞ்சம்(பொருளுலகம்) என்பனவற்றினியல்பையும் அவற்றில் பரம்பொருள் சிவலிங்கரூபமாகக் கலந்திருக்கும் முறையினையும் அறியச் செய்கிறார்.

• இத்தகைய பரம்பொருள் மிகச் சிறிய பொருள்களுக்கெல்லாம் மிகச் சிறியதாகவும், மிகப் பெரிய பொருள்களுக்கெல்லாம் மிகப் பெரிய பொருளாகவும் இருக்கும் நிலையை உணரச் செய்கின்றார்.

• இத்தகைய பரம்பொருள்சை உலகவாழ்வில் இருந்துகொண்டே அறிவதும் அப்பொருளுடன் கலந்து ஆனந்தம் அனுபவிப்பதும் கரும்பினைக் கணுக்கணுவாகச் சுவைத்துச் செல்லும் அனுபவம் போன்றது.

• இந்த அனுபவம் நீடித்திருக்கத் திருநீறு உருத்திராக்கம் முதலிய சிவசின்னங்களை அணிய வேண்டும்.
• அவற்றையும் அவற்றை அணிந்துள்ள அடியார்களையும் சிவமெனவே கண்டு வழிபடுதல் வேண்டும்.

• எப்பொழுதும் அடியார் கூட்டத்துடன் கலந்திருத்தல் வேண்டும்.

• திருவைந்தெழுத்து மந்திர செபத்தைக் கைவிடலாகாது.

இவ்வாறு விநாயகப் பெருமான் பக்குவமுடைய ஆன்மாவுக்கு ஞானோபதேசம் செய்து ஞானநெறியிலும் யோகநெறியிலும் நிற்கச் செய்து இவ்வுலகிலேயே சீவன்முத்தனாக இருந்து சிவானந்தம் அனுபவிக்கும் நிலையினையும் தந்து, அவ்வான்மா சிவத்தைப் போலென்றும் ஒரேதன்மையுடையதாய் இருக்கும் நிலையினை அடையச் செய்கிறார். அந்நிலையிலிருந்து அவ்வான்மா தன்னைவிட்டு நீங்காமல் தனக்கே அடிமையாய் இருக்கும் நிலைமையினையும் விநாயப் பெருமான் அருளுகின்றார் என்னும் அரிய செய்திகளை விநாயகர் அகவல் என்னும் இந்த நூல் கூறுகின்றார்.

ஒளவையார் அருளிய விநாயகர் அகவல் (மூலமும் உரையும்): அட்டாங்கயோகம், பிராசாத யோகம்.

 

media Crooks


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Indian Media Watch…. Changing The Way You Consume News..
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Imported Garbage – From New York Times

September 19, 2013


This blog has always been dedicated to Indian news media as it was meant to be. However, considering multiple elections are looming and business abroad is not so great one can expect a lot of imported scumbags to fry their onions in the Indian heat. The American media is the inspiration behind the terribly corrupt and
untrustworthy media in India. They too have fake reports, fake awards and even bogus reports to encourage war. Even the Pulitzer Prize can be hoodwinked. Don’t believe me? Read the story of Janet Cooke in “Barkha – The Queen of Telly Trolls”. The common misconception in India is that the longest running media competition is KBC. Actually no! KBC had many breaks. The longest running media completion is “Abuse Narendra Modi and win a prize”.Unfortunately, there is hardly any media crook in India who hasn’t already won that prize so now there are imported contestants. Any Tom, Dick and Harris would do! So ‘Enter Gardiner Harris’ of the New York Times (NYT).
 
This is what Harris’ profile on Twitter says (pic on the left). Usually when you have a grand title like “South Asia correspondent you can assume there will be a lot of stringers and side-kicks assisting the person. To put it politely, these people usually peddle “second-hand stuff”. You know, like selling used cars. If you ever met a used-car salesman he will make you believe it’s even better than a virgin car. But the Twitter profile doesn’t say much else, so a more honest introduction to Harris is mandatory. Here’s how one introduced him (edited excerpts):
“The Inconstant Gardiner: The New York Times’ Fervent Disconnect Between Drug and Vaccine Reporting: The film “The Constant Gardener—starring Ralph Fiennes and Rachel Weisz… from the book by John le Carré—is the story of sacrifice and moral constancy against the corruption of fictional corporate giant KVH, maker of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. It’s a beautiful film in many ways, and terrifying; a cross between reality check and forecast…..  Isn’t tireless repetition of “emotional words” a technique of advertising and political propaganda? Or is Harris too bored with the issue to come up with fresher adjectives?  I suppose that could explain the—cough— inconstant reporting. Inconstant: adjective; likely to change frequently without apparent or cogent reason— in•con•stant•ly adverb … Gardiner Harris—who just came out with his first novel involving a possible conspiracy in coalmining  —likes to chastise vaccine injury claimants for being “misled by conspiracy theories”.  It’s funny if you think about it. Harris’s conceit is that he himself would be in on such a conspiracy if it existed— when in reality, Harris doesn’t make decisions about what gets printed in the Times any more than a drug rep decides what to sell”.
Isn’t tireless repetition of “emotional words” a technique of advertising and political propaganda? Asks the article about Harris. Oh yes, terms like “divisive” “controversial” “fascist” “chauvinist” “polariser” are all propaganda words that fit very much with Harris’ style as it does with most of his Indian counterparts. I recommend you read the full introduction of Harris that I’ve linked so that there is no selective interpretation. What I’ve quoted is actually the nicer part. So on what basis he wrote this crap called “Campaign for Prime Minister in India Gets Off to Violent Start” about NaMo can only be described as mindless propaganda and nothing more. It’s his “first time” I suppose, so we will throw back just a couple of his moroneries back at him.  Harris clearly tries to imply that the nomination of Modi as BJP’s PM candidatesparked off the Muzzafarnagar riots. Sounds a lot like our very own Diggy, doesn’t he? Here’s what he starts with:
India’s most important election in a generation began in earnest this month the same way consequential elections nearly always start here — with a proclamation and a deadly riot. In New Delhi, the Bharatiya Janata Party announced last week that it had chosen Narendra Modi, one of the most divisive politicians in India’s history, as its candidate for prime minister in next spring’s national elections. Mr. Modi, the chief minister of the western state of Gujarat, is an unapologetic Hindu chauvinist who has been accused of mass murder”.
So the “proclamation” is connected to a deadly riot – the Muzzafarnagar one. Of course, Harris doesn’t forget to state Modi has been “accused of mass murder”. Now who has accused Modi of this? Not a court and not even an FIR. It is scumbags like Harris in the Indian media who have done this; most prominently Vir Sanghvi and Rajdeep Sardesai. Bravo, second-hand crap is passed off as gospel. Here’s another one from Harris:

Okay, in the above para he links to an article about the Muzzafarnagar riots. This is from his own NYT barn. That linked article is “Fear and loathing in North India’s sugarcane town”. Nice! Very nice! Harris also states the riots were due to a “fake video” by a legislator from Modi’s party. See? This guy is a fast learner. Bad things it’s Modi’s Gujarat, Modi’s aide, Modi’s right-hand man. Good things? It’s Gujarat or Gujarat govt. I guess this guy must have attended classes at NDTV and CNN-IBN. Anyway, here’s what the article he linked says:

Oh, the fake video theory has been busted. But trust used-car salesmen to tell you how virgin the car is. So the riots, which actually started in August, escalated on September 7 as the NYT report  says. Modi was nominated PM candidate on Friday the 13thYet, like the usual Indian liars in our own media Harris makes a fake connection. I hope the UPA awards him a Padma Shri before they exit. Then Harris proceeds to write the tripe that has been peddled over and over again in India. He’s just about some 10 years late, that’s all. Oh and then he quotes the great Sushil Kumar Shinde too:
Sushil Kumar Shinde, India’s minister of Home Affairs, said that there had already been 451 cases of sectarian violence this year, surpassing last year’s total of 410. He warned that violence was likely to intensify as elections approached”.
451 cases of sectarian violence this year? What? Did you hear any of that? Did you see of any of that being reported by NDTV, CNN-IBN, TOI Group, Headlines Today or ABPNews all of whom are clones of NYT and American media? Oops! He reveals something else too. There were 410 last year. Did you hear most of that either? Thanks to Harris, at least he exposes the criminal cover-up artists in Indian media. But the Inconstant Gardiner misses something. None of the 451 or 410 happened in Gujarat or under Modi’s watch. So he will learn slowly those aren’t sectarian violence. The only communal clash ever in India was Gujarat 2002.
Harris also grandly states Modi rarely speaks to Western media. He is wrong. Modi rarely speaks to any mediabecause he knows how they are criminally ranged against him. He is smart and throws words in his speeches and lets them grovel for crumbs. But even here “second-hand” news peddler Harris is inaccurate. Modi gave an interview to Reuters just some weeks ago. Obviously, Harris is not a lover of Puppies or he would have heard of that. No?
But like I said those “South Asia” type specialists are usually assisted by local sidekicks. In this case there is one Hari Kumar from Ahmedabad and Nida Najar from Muzzafarnagar. In a tribute to John Lennon this is what Elton John wrote about the gardener he was:


What happened here
As the New York sunset disappeared
I found an empty garden among the flagstones there
Who lived here
He must have been a gardener that cared a lot
Who weeded out the tears and grew a good crop
And now it all looks strange
It’s funny how one insect can damage so much grain.

It’s true; one insect can also damage the NYT as they know so well. “Reporter Judith Miller retired after criticisms that her reporting of the lead-up to the Iraq War was factually inaccurate and overly favorable to the Bush administration’s position, for which The New York Times later apologized. One of Miller’s prime sources was Ahmed Chalabi, an Iraqi expatriate who returned to Iraq after the U.S. invasion and held a number of governmental positions culminating in acting oil minister and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006”…. “In May 2003, Times reporter Jayson Blair was forced to resign from the newspaper after he was caught plagiarizing and fabricating elements of hisstories. Some critics contended that Blair’s race was a major factor in his hiring and in The New York Times’ initial reluctance to fire him”. The NYT has won a lot of awards and also has the experience of weeds. One hopes they don’t let an insect damage the good crop.

 

Why MODIfied India will give jitters to alienated Bharatwasis?


Subject: Why MODIfied India will give jitters to alienated Bharatwasis?
Modi: Enemy at the Gates

Modi has arrived and arrived in style, notwithstanding the bombastic resistance from the Congress and their paid agents in the BJP and Media. Delhi is finally on NaMo’s radar and his troops can see the domes of South Block, which he will hopefully occupy by May 2014, if not earlier.

The political career of the senior BJP leadership is over. They did not see the writing on the wall and have now been removed by their cadres. The BJP President, Rajnath Singh, handled it well, but in hindsight, his efforts were completely unnecessary. The lesson for the future is to let the leadership come out through open internal elections where the village, district and the state level leaders vote. Had there been a contest to choose the PM candidate, it is evident that Modi would have easily vanquished the rest. Unanimity is not required. This is true democracy.

The Congress is notably jittery. During Modi’s recent visit to Jaipur, the Rajasthan CM had the electric supplies shut so that the village folk did not see the live telecast. Their impending doom will now translate into incoherent actions. Where in the world has anyone ever heard of an opposition leader, who is only a state CM, being discussed thoroughly be it TV, print media, cocktail circuits, vegetable vendors, taxi drivers etc. NaMo is taking away 80% of their time. Nobody wastes time on the ruling dispensation. Does anybody even discuss MMS, PC, SG, RG etc? The discussions on them are generally negative and the junta only wants to know if they are likely to go to jail.

From the Aam Admi’s point of view, NaMo had made an important statement on a Zee TV program “Kahiye Janab”. He stated: “*Na mein kahta hoon, na kisi ko kahne deta hoon*”. No wonder, the levels of corruption in Gujarat is comparable to that of Singapore.

Modi at the gates of Delhi augurs well for the Indian State.
a) Sycophancy and nepotism will soon be an era of the past.
b) Good bye to vote bank politics.
c) Bureaucrats will fall in line.
d) NGOs who operate from garages of Lutyens Delhi will have to move to safe havens in Congress ruled states.
e) Many newspapers will die. The advertising budget in Gujarat was reduced by 80%.
Expect the same by the Modi Government.
f) The Armed Forces will get their much cherished “Political Control”. Issues will be solved pronto before
any soldier can say “Jack Robinson”.
g) Along with Swamy and Jethmalani, most of the black money stowed abroad will be brought back. The Rupee will challenge the Dollar.
h) NO Income Tax as per Swamy’s statement.
i) Terrorists will now have a “maut ka saudagar”. The Congress has made India the most dangerous country after Iraq and Afghanistan.
j) The Pakis and Chinese may have already gone into a huddle.
k) Modi has a good memory. The Americans had better watch out.
l) J&K will finally be Indian Territory. Enough of Article 70.

An eminent General recently wrote an article “Death of Politics”. I disagree. Modi will bring in clean politics. He has no dependents or damaad to speak of. A bright future awaits a *Modi*fied India.

Author/ Source not known
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Lets us work and make our…
Government – Proactive
Media – Reactive
Political Parties – Elective
Voters – Selective
Crowds – Constructive
Youth – Creative

MMS, the closet spiritualist
The widely respected economist and scholar has been credited with heralding a new era of economic liberalisation in India with his laissez-faire policy. Yet Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has been at the receiving end of late. Criticisms include use of adjectives like “ineffective”, “pusillanimous” and “understated” to “spineless” and “puppet PM.”

“It astonishes me that Manmohan Singh should talk so little and be so barely visible that we might be forgiven for thinking thatIndia has an imaginary Prime Minister,” wrote a celebrity-journalist in his blog a few months ago.

It is difficult to believe that the architect of India’s laissez-faire could be all that vulnerable, naive or “imaginary”. The non-committal, non-controversial and understated disposition that characterises the gentleman could be a veneer that conceals a far more evolved and enlightened approach towards his duties and responsibilities – in the current situation, as prime minister – that enables him to navigate life without much ado.

In a speech he gave at a public conclave held in the Capital, Manmohan Singh said: “I do not want India to be a super power; I just want India to stand in the comity of nations.” So he doesn’t seem to display any signs of being power-needy.

Perhaps he has no dark side, then. Manmohan Singh could, in all likelihood, be an advanced spiritualist who perceives himself as having absolutely no stake – neither in the country, in the species nor in the planet! He also shows great resilience in adverse situations, whether in a political, social or economic exigency. To be detached like a yogi even while living among fellow beings in the rough and tumble of politics and economics is no easy task. Guru Nanak described such a one as ‘raj mein jog’ – that is, the one who can achieve enlightenment in civic life. He also said: “The lotus in the water is not wet / Nor the water-fowl in the stream. / If a man would live, but by the world untouched, / Meditate and repeat the name of the Lord Supreme.”

Extolling the attributes of the one who has cultivated studied non-attachment to highs and lows, Guru Tegh Bahadur sang thus: “…He who has neither gluttony in his heart / Nor vanity nor attachment with worldly things, / He whom nothing moves, / Neither good fortune nor ill, / Who cares not for the world’s applause, / Nor its censure, / Who ignores every wishful fantasy / And accepts what comes his way as it comes… / He knows the righteous path…”

Some might conclude that Manmohan Singh’s proclivity for remaining a ‘Nirlep Narayan’ makes him out to be one without a stake and therefore he has nothing to win or lose. If he makes promises, they’re bound to be ones that concern issues that would get resolved if not now, later and if not later, even later, perhaps… or not.

It might not be in order to compare Manmohan Singh with King Janaka, who is the only one Krishna praises in the Bhagwad Gita for having transcended everything even while administering a kingdom. However, there are tantalizing similarities between the PM’s studied ‘indifference’ and the non-attachment and transcendence of someone like Janaka, that leads one to conclude that Manmohan Singh is laissez-faire by nature, in the spiritual sense.

How will all this pan out if Manmohan Singh and his party lose the next round of elections? He might just quote from the Ashtavakra Gita: “From one lifetime to another, kingdoms, sons, wives, appearances and pleasures to which you were attached have been lost… For innumerable births have you undertaken work, painful and exacting, with your body, mind and speech. Hence find rest at least now.”

 
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Narayani Ganesh is a senior editor with The Times of India. She writes on issues concerning the environment, science and technology, travel and tourism, heritage, philosophy, and health. She edits The Speaking Tree Sunday newspaper and daily column of that name, and is a leader writer with the Times of India opinion pages.

 

“An History of India as it Happened (not as it was written)”:


 “An History of India as it Happened (not as it was written)”:

CHAPTER 6 : NEGATIONISM AND THE MUSLIM CONQUESTS (Part II)
It is not only Indian historians, who are negationists, but also western historians and India-specialists. We know that the first historians of Indian – the Britishers – twisted India’s history to suit their theory that they had come to civilize a race which was not only inferior to them, but also was supposed to have been heavily influenced in its philosophies or arts by European invaders – read the Aryans or Alexander the Great. But what is less known is that today many western historians not only still cling to these old outdated theories, but also actually more or less will fully mislead the general European public, who is generally totally ignorant and takes these “knowledgeable” comments about India as the absolute truth. One example is France, which has a long tradition of Indianists, who devote their time and life to the study of India. The main school of historic research in France is called the CNRS (National Center of Social Research), which has a very important South Asia section, of which India, of course, is the main component. Unfortunately, many of these India-specialists are not only Left-leaning, that is they are very close to the ideas of the JNU historians, with whom they are anyway in constant contact, but are also specialists of the Mogul period of India history, which is to say that they are sympathetic to Islam’s point of view on India, while t