Battle of Masses Vs Classy Elite


THE ELITIST VERSUS THE CHAIWALA – BY VIJAY DUTT

The gaddi of the prime minister seems somewhat hedged for the BJP’s prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi, because everyone the status quoists, the media, leaders of all “secular” parties, leftists, “secularists”, the elites and a powerful lobby within his party are all arraigned against him. Its Modi vs. The Rest. The only positive factor in his favour is the unprecedented wave blowing across the country in his favour. His other advantage is that he belongs to the lowest class of OBCs.

All the biases, prejudices, caste and religious considerations are swept away by the wave. In that case the way to the gaddi would be cleared for Modi. The other factor in his favour is the unprecedented desire especially among over 65 per cent youth to see an authoritative leader presiding over the country’s affairs rather than a muddled leader who is indecisive leading to a policy paralysis. This youth, a large number of whom flock his rallies, do not care about 2002. The India Today survey found that 86 per cent wanted a decisive and dominant leader.

But what if the wave abates by the time of the election next year? Modi would have to contend with many hurdles, including the tough resistance from the elite, who are although in minimal percentage, ensconced firmly in power. Tavleen Singh did write about the Lutyen Club that jealously guards its membership and occupation of the best part of Delhi. Only elite are eligible to its membership. How can a Chaiwala dare challenge the elite’s monopoly?

The Modi’s unprecedented wave has, ironically, caused much loathing, fear and heartburn. But the basic question is, will this wave sweep Narendra Modi to the “Gaddi” of the Prime Minister or give him a roller coaster ride to nowhere.

One can see the reflection of the resistance of the elite in the TV English Channels and the comments of panellists during discussions. The attitude of a nominated MP in the Rajya Sabha, who studied at St. Stephens and abroad shows what they think of the non-St. Stephenians and those who have studied in schools with Hindi medium. He smirks as others speak and if enraged calls others stupid. This typifies the arrogance of an elite.

The left-wingers, another intellectual class because of their high education and Karl Marx indoctrination, form a more virulent opposition to Modi. Their outbursts and pen, both are vitriolic. Modi is rabidly communal, he mass massacred nearly 1000 members of the minority community, they keep reminding.

The memory of such intellectuals is selective. They do not or rather do not want to recall the massacre – several times of 1000–of members of another minority community in 1984 when Rajiv Gandhi was Prime Minister. He had been sworn-in within hours of the assassination of his mother. There were no lathi charge, no curfew and no prosecutions so far unlike in Gujarat. Rajiv Gandhi just said when a bunyan tree falls, earth shakes.

Why this discrimination? Because Modi is no elite, no comrade and most probably not read the codes of Karl Marx, or because he is not a jholawala but a tough-looking smartly dressed  person with skills of oratory which is unmatched? How dare a tea-vendor shouting  chaiwala, chaiwala as he passed from one compartment to another  create a wave which has swept away many of his own weaknesses

The 2002 riots were so far been the weapon of the so-called secularists to beat Modi. But then in the State of one avid champion of secularism Mulayam Singh Yadav had a nasty dose of his own medicine. Both Jats and Muslims accuse the UP Government of failing to protect them. Jats complain that years of favouritism shown to Muslims—in the name of secularism- built up resentment which released to cause riots. Muslims allege that the orgy of riots was not suppressed to create panic amongst them and then make them feel that Samajwadi Party was their only saviour.

The kind of secularism of SP in Muzaffarnagar is practised by all “secular” political parties, starting with the Congress. And this is the weapon which is being used to demolish Modi. But this weapon has got blunted now. These parties are being re-educated—that secularism means separation between religion and the State and that State must treat all faiths on equal footing. But the secularism as practised by the “secular” parties means exploiting religion for a captive vote bank and for that favouring one faith against another.

These secularists call Modi a fundamentalist, a bigoted Hindu. But what did he say when asked what are you doing for minorities (in Gujarat)—I do not do anything, I do everything for all the Gujaratis in the State. Who is more secular, the questioner or Modi?

Anyway it would be impossible for Modi to wipe out the taint immediately. The perverted form of secularism has given rise to the adulteration of the word ‘communal’ and the secularism as practised by the “secular” parties has led to deep—rooted communalism. India is thus buttressed between the covert communalism of so-called secularists and overt communalism of the RSS. Modi is in betwixt the two. He cannot convince Muslims easily that he is above all forms of communalism.

He would go into the election without the support of majority of members of the minority community. He would have to prove his sincerity in following secularism before expecting support of Muslim voters.

The wave he has created would not sweep over this taint, but yes the elite would come to know how wave sweeps away all, including them, when its in tide. The other hurdles like, the sabotage from within which would be attempted despite the RSS efforts for reconciliation, would not hurt Modi if the wave continues.

The other obstacle, a more serious one, comes from the Congress and its Dirty Tricks cell. And since the Government is led by it, all the hurdles it would create could require tough efforts to  overcome them. The wave could help a bit but as Modi said that CBI would contest, which means the agency could entangle Modi in say Ishrat Jahan’s or some other case which would bog down Modi, and hamper campaigning and cut deeply into BJP’s tally in the general election.

The only saving grace for Modi is that now its getting a bit too late to entangle him in cases. With the General Election hardly six month away, any charges if framed against Modi would be interpreted by the voter as an attempt to bind him. This could lead to polarisation, more severe than Modi could create.

The question now is whether the Modi wave would continue for another six months or abate?  It seems, it would not recede, simply because rather shrewdly Modi has been addressing every meeting according to the area and the audience. He has enthused voters in the areas he has gone so far and he is thus likely to further captivate and win voters in other places he goes to.

Modi has succeeded in building a “ class revolution” from the ground. Everyone is becoming aspiration-al. The elite and the beneficiaries of the system feel threatened. As Praveen Patil wrote, “A Ramchandra Guha who sells a few hundred copies of his muddled history books but had almost exclusive control over intellectual opinion in the past has to now compete with a Chetan Bhagat who sells millions of his books to ordinary Indians.

“This is what is disconcerting to the ruling class, for their writ no longer runs large. India is now a riot of colours and no longer can the left control carefully cultivated canvas of opinions.”

Modi is to be credited for this amazing transition. And this is why he is becoming more and more man of the masses. How does one meet such a formidable challenger of change?

REQUEST:-

1.You may  forward  this  email,  but   please   ensure  to   delete  the forwarding history as a courtesy to those who may not wish to have their addresses displayed.

2.   Please   use   the   Bcc box   instead   of  the To box to help prevent Spammers from mining addresses and spreading viruses. Thank you.

Take time to laugh, for it is the music of the soul.

Have a Happy and Wonderful Day.

 

Modi storm in Delhi, tremors in the country


Modi blows Ananta Vijaya

By Sandhya Jain on September 29, 2013
Modi blows Ananta Vijaya
Narendra Modi today blew the Ananta Vijaya, conch shell of Prince Yudhisthira, to announce his march on Delhi as future ruler, though he promised, with Caesar-like modesty, that he would not be king (main nath nahin hoon, das hoon). Castigating the Prime Minister for weakness in projecting India’s power and dignity abroad, the Congress’ anointed heir for upstart behaviour vis-á-vis the Head of Government, and Indian journalists for pusillanimity before the Pakistan Prime Minister whilst part of the Prime Ministerial delegation to New York, the Gujarat Chief Minister made it clear that nationalism would be non-negotiable under his reign.
At a mammoth, five plus lakh strong, rally organised by the Delhi unit of the Bharatiya Janata Party to launch the party’s campaign for the Assembly election in November, Modi mostly skirted Delhi-centric issues and reserved his fire for the Gandhi family and the political culture it represents. He displayed canny constitutional propriety by supporting the beleaguered Prime Minister against attacks on his person and office, while berating him for weakness.
The Prime Minister recently met the US President in Washington, but instead of showcasing India as a youthful nation and ancient civilisation, he told Barack Obama that India is a poor country. He sounded like film-makers who market India’s poverty abroad and collect awards. Was the Prime Minister talking about poverty which Rahul Gandhi called a “state of mind” or the real poverty of our back lanes, Modi asked.
Claiming the nation fears the outcome of Manmohan Singh’s meeting with the Pakistan Prime Minister, Modi said he was hurt when Nawaz Sharif called Indian and Pakistani journalists for breakfast and called the Indian Prime Minister a “dehati aurat” (village woman) for complaining about terrorism from Pakistani soil (which on September 26 took 12 Indian lives in two incidents at Kathua and Samba in Jammu & Kashmir). India, he thundered, will not tolerate this insult to the nation and the Prime Minister, “whatever our internal differences may be”. Nawaz Sharif could have the temerity to speak like this about Manmohan Singh, who is senior to him even in age, because the Congress vice-president has, in village parlance, “Pradhan Mantri ki pagdi uchaal di hai” (insulted him) and that is a sin (paap).
Modi challenged Indian mediapersons present to explain why they did not walk out when the Prime Minister was thus insulted. A possible reason could be that the Indian media, which the Vajpayee Government hosted at Agra, snuggled up to then President Parvez Musharraf when he made equally outrageous comments about Jammu & Kashmir. Modi has signalled an end to tolerance of such malfeasance by the media.
The BJP’s prime ministerial hopeful said the Indian people sincerely hope Manmohan Singh will show Nawaz Sharif his place and ask when Pakistan-occupied Kashmir will be returned to India, talk about terrorism and the constant killing of our jawans, and particularly try to bring back the severed head of our jawan whose mother and widow are still weeping.
The great dilemma before the nation today is between parivar shahi and lok shahi; the battle is to decide if India will run according to the Constitution (samvidhan) or the whim of the shehzade (Rahul Gandhi). Can the UPA allies answer this question – whom would they like to work under? Modi reminded his audience that when the Supreme Court decision on debarring convicted leaders came, the BJP supported it and made its stand clear at the all party meeting and in the meeting with the President. Disapproving of the manner in which Rahul Gandhi junked his own party-led Government’s Ordinance to save convicted legislators, the Gujarat strongman said that in both the Delhi and the 2014 general elections, it was time to get rid of the Dirty Team and bring in the Dream Team.
If one were to search for the signature theme of Narendra Modi’s Operation Red Fort, it would be “mujhe vishwas hai” (I have confidence), a far cry from the inane mumblings of a leader who thought India was nothing and had to be made something — “humme Bharat ko banana hai” (we have to make India this or that). In less than a decade, he pointed out, India will celebrate 75 years of freedom (Amrut Mahotsav) and we must decide what heights we want to scale by then. The UPA, he charged, has no vision at all, and every successive Budget has hovered around sensex up or down, income tax up or down, import relief, with no grand picture.
Armed as always with statistics to prove his points, Modi said the UPA brags only about achievements made by State Governments, but its own performance is dismal. The Railways in 1980 had 61,000 km tracks and 31 years later only 3,000 km of lines have been added, whereas China in the same period added 11,000 km of railway tracks from a baseline 50,000 km and their speed and quality equals Japan.
The UPA in an affidavit before the Supreme Court admitted that the NDA in six years added 24,000 km of roads to the national highways but UPA in nine years has added only 16000 km. The Aviation sector in the past seven years has seen unprecedented corruption, losses of Rs 53,000 crore and a debt of Rs 1 lakh crore; but it gave a package of Rs 30,000 crore to the private airlines. Delhi is starved for power and stations that can generate 20,000 MW are ready but non-functional because the regime has failed to allot gas and coal and set up transmission lines, because without money no file is signed.
Striking a personal note, Narendra Modi said it is India’s greatness that a boy who used to sell tea in train cabins to make ends meet has today been elevated by the people to this stage. As the crowds went hysterical, he said, “I never dreamt to be a ruler, I am a sevak”. He exhorted them to “see my past and see my work” and “trust my promise that neither Narendra Modi nor the BJP will ever destroy your trust, let you down; we will live for your dreams, that is our mission”.

He lambasted the dysfunctional regimes in Delhi where the Chief Minister accepts no responsibility for anything that goes wrong, including the safety of young girls, and New Delhi which is paralysed between the Government and the Mother-Son rule. The UPA is drowning in corruption, but remains addicted to “Gandhi-chaap”, the high denomination notes which are being collected in the tonnes. The nation, he concluded, is yearning for Su-raaj, good governance.

http://www.niticentral.com/2013/09/29/modi-blows-ananta-vijaya-139350.html


S. Kalyanaraman

 

 

Why MODIfied India will give jitters to alienated Bharatwasis?


Subject: Why MODIfied India will give jitters to alienated Bharatwasis?
Modi: Enemy at the Gates

Modi has arrived and arrived in style, notwithstanding the bombastic resistance from the Congress and their paid agents in the BJP and Media. Delhi is finally on NaMo’s radar and his troops can see the domes of South Block, which he will hopefully occupy by May 2014, if not earlier.

The political career of the senior BJP leadership is over. They did not see the writing on the wall and have now been removed by their cadres. The BJP President, Rajnath Singh, handled it well, but in hindsight, his efforts were completely unnecessary. The lesson for the future is to let the leadership come out through open internal elections where the village, district and the state level leaders vote. Had there been a contest to choose the PM candidate, it is evident that Modi would have easily vanquished the rest. Unanimity is not required. This is true democracy.

The Congress is notably jittery. During Modi’s recent visit to Jaipur, the Rajasthan CM had the electric supplies shut so that the village folk did not see the live telecast. Their impending doom will now translate into incoherent actions. Where in the world has anyone ever heard of an opposition leader, who is only a state CM, being discussed thoroughly be it TV, print media, cocktail circuits, vegetable vendors, taxi drivers etc. NaMo is taking away 80% of their time. Nobody wastes time on the ruling dispensation. Does anybody even discuss MMS, PC, SG, RG etc? The discussions on them are generally negative and the junta only wants to know if they are likely to go to jail.

From the Aam Admi’s point of view, NaMo had made an important statement on a Zee TV program “Kahiye Janab”. He stated: “*Na mein kahta hoon, na kisi ko kahne deta hoon*”. No wonder, the levels of corruption in Gujarat is comparable to that of Singapore.

Modi at the gates of Delhi augurs well for the Indian State.
a) Sycophancy and nepotism will soon be an era of the past.
b) Good bye to vote bank politics.
c) Bureaucrats will fall in line.
d) NGOs who operate from garages of Lutyens Delhi will have to move to safe havens in Congress ruled states.
e) Many newspapers will die. The advertising budget in Gujarat was reduced by 80%.
Expect the same by the Modi Government.
f) The Armed Forces will get their much cherished “Political Control”. Issues will be solved pronto before
any soldier can say “Jack Robinson”.
g) Along with Swamy and Jethmalani, most of the black money stowed abroad will be brought back. The Rupee will challenge the Dollar.
h) NO Income Tax as per Swamy’s statement.
i) Terrorists will now have a “maut ka saudagar”. The Congress has made India the most dangerous country after Iraq and Afghanistan.
j) The Pakis and Chinese may have already gone into a huddle.
k) Modi has a good memory. The Americans had better watch out.
l) J&K will finally be Indian Territory. Enough of Article 70.

An eminent General recently wrote an article “Death of Politics”. I disagree. Modi will bring in clean politics. He has no dependents or damaad to speak of. A bright future awaits a *Modi*fied India.

Author/ Source not known
~
Lets us work and make our…
Government – Proactive
Media – Reactive
Political Parties – Elective
Voters – Selective
Crowds – Constructive
Youth – Creative

MMS, the closet spiritualist
The widely respected economist and scholar has been credited with heralding a new era of economic liberalisation in India with his laissez-faire policy. Yet Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has been at the receiving end of late. Criticisms include use of adjectives like “ineffective”, “pusillanimous” and “understated” to “spineless” and “puppet PM.”

“It astonishes me that Manmohan Singh should talk so little and be so barely visible that we might be forgiven for thinking thatIndia has an imaginary Prime Minister,” wrote a celebrity-journalist in his blog a few months ago.

It is difficult to believe that the architect of India’s laissez-faire could be all that vulnerable, naive or “imaginary”. The non-committal, non-controversial and understated disposition that characterises the gentleman could be a veneer that conceals a far more evolved and enlightened approach towards his duties and responsibilities – in the current situation, as prime minister – that enables him to navigate life without much ado.

In a speech he gave at a public conclave held in the Capital, Manmohan Singh said: “I do not want India to be a super power; I just want India to stand in the comity of nations.” So he doesn’t seem to display any signs of being power-needy.

Perhaps he has no dark side, then. Manmohan Singh could, in all likelihood, be an advanced spiritualist who perceives himself as having absolutely no stake – neither in the country, in the species nor in the planet! He also shows great resilience in adverse situations, whether in a political, social or economic exigency. To be detached like a yogi even while living among fellow beings in the rough and tumble of politics and economics is no easy task. Guru Nanak described such a one as ‘raj mein jog’ – that is, the one who can achieve enlightenment in civic life. He also said: “The lotus in the water is not wet / Nor the water-fowl in the stream. / If a man would live, but by the world untouched, / Meditate and repeat the name of the Lord Supreme.”

Extolling the attributes of the one who has cultivated studied non-attachment to highs and lows, Guru Tegh Bahadur sang thus: “…He who has neither gluttony in his heart / Nor vanity nor attachment with worldly things, / He whom nothing moves, / Neither good fortune nor ill, / Who cares not for the world’s applause, / Nor its censure, / Who ignores every wishful fantasy / And accepts what comes his way as it comes… / He knows the righteous path…”

Some might conclude that Manmohan Singh’s proclivity for remaining a ‘Nirlep Narayan’ makes him out to be one without a stake and therefore he has nothing to win or lose. If he makes promises, they’re bound to be ones that concern issues that would get resolved if not now, later and if not later, even later, perhaps… or not.

It might not be in order to compare Manmohan Singh with King Janaka, who is the only one Krishna praises in the Bhagwad Gita for having transcended everything even while administering a kingdom. However, there are tantalizing similarities between the PM’s studied ‘indifference’ and the non-attachment and transcendence of someone like Janaka, that leads one to conclude that Manmohan Singh is laissez-faire by nature, in the spiritual sense.

How will all this pan out if Manmohan Singh and his party lose the next round of elections? He might just quote from the Ashtavakra Gita: “From one lifetime to another, kingdoms, sons, wives, appearances and pleasures to which you were attached have been lost… For innumerable births have you undertaken work, painful and exacting, with your body, mind and speech. Hence find rest at least now.”

 
~
Narayani Ganesh is a senior editor with The Times of India. She writes on issues concerning the environment, science and technology, travel and tourism, heritage, philosophy, and health. She edits The Speaking Tree Sunday newspaper and daily column of that name, and is a leader writer with the Times of India opinion pages.

 

A Ground Zero view of Modi’s speech at Hyderabad


 

A Ground Zero view of Modi’s speech at Hyderabad

by  on August 12, 2013

  nmh4

The Preparation:

Many of us have been waiting with excitement for the proposed Modi’s rally yesterday (11th August). We have done the registration long time back and made our plans to be at the stadium well before time to make sure we got a seat. Considering the fact that Modi is a Z+ category politician, security arrangements have been massive; the police of Hyderabad took control of the stadium 2 days before the event with all the security personnel doing everything to make sure no unforeseen incident happens. Massive arrangements have been made in the Lal Bahadur Shastry Stadium located at the centre of Hyderabad. To make sure people don’t go back due to lack of seats, the local BJP administration also made arrangements to screen on Live TV outside the stadium including the Nizam College grounds.

nmh2

Build Up:

We started quite early and went into the stadium 11:30 , a good 5 hours before Modi was supposed to speak. People started entering into the stadium after the security personnel opened the gates around 11:30. The mood was festive, with Lotus symbols everywhere in and out of the stadium. There were huge flexi cut outs of Swamy Vivekananda and Sri Sardar Vallabhai Patel to either side of the stage. We were seated behind the VIP section in between the main stage and the stage arranged for cultural programmes. We could see the buzz increasing by every minute. By 1:30 PM, the stadium was 60-70 full with people shouting pro-BJP slogans. This was a build of reminiscent of a build up before an India vs Pakistan cricket match.  Before delegates started speaking the cultural programmes were getting everyone in the stadium involved with people chanting ‘Vande Mataram’ song composed by A.R.Rehman.  There were Telugu songs& dances composed by the local cultural group ‘Jana Chaithanya Kala Vahini’. There was a 6 year old kid playing the keyboard that mesmerised everyone.  The buzz was electric and giving Goosebumps to the people watching the shows.

By around 2:30 PM, the stadium was completely full and all the local leaders started speaking, honestly- there was only one thing at the back our mind, which was the anticipation and that we would watch Modi live in an hour or so. We were also hearing from people outside that the entry into the stadium was now stopped and people had to watch the speech outside on the screen. L.B.Stadium has a capacity of around 40 thousand people. And there were more than 20000 chairs on the ground in front of and around the main stage. Many people were standing too. As a conservative estimate – the overall numbers would easily be around 75,000 people in the stadium. More than a lakh of people were waiting outside to listen to Modi.

nmh1

Modi’s entry:

Politicians on the stage started speaking one after the other. As planned Modi turned up exactly at 4 PM, Nagam Janardhan Reddy, who was addressing the public at that time had to be interrupted because there was a thunderous applause when Modi was climbing the steps of the stage. He waved his hands to the people by moving around on the stage. It was unbelievable to see 75 thousand people chanting ‘Modi’, ‘Modi’ wildly. It was a rock star reception that he received from all corners of the stadium.

Once everyone settled down, one after the other speakers were talking about the Congress misrule and their mishandling of the Telangana statehood. When Shri Kishan Reddy spoke about special arrangements being made for a 85 year old women and a 80 year old freedom fighter who wanted to see and listen to Modi, they stood up , everyone in the stadium stood up and Modi stood up with folded hands. it was  festive mood all over. After a while special arrangements were made on the stage for them to be seated next to the leaders. Modi touched their feet and took their blessings. It was a touching gesture that made us emotional and almost tears rolling in our eyes.

Just before Modi got his chance to speak, there was an excellent performance by a Gujarati cultural team with a song ‘All the best’ to wish Modi for his a successful campaign for the next one year. It was all immaculately planned.

Modi started speaking around 5:30, we were all surprised as he started speaking in Telugu wishing people of AP for success and prosperity – it went on for 3-4 minutes. Some of my friends have joked that his Telugu is much better than the broken Telugu spoken by some of our film actors.

After switching back to Hindi, Modi was his usual self, touched all the important problems that the country faces. How we have a leader who doesn’t speak , doesn’t show up the people of India when needed, How our response has been meek to the aggression shown by Pakistan and China, how the internal security is compromised , the recent issues in Kistwar of Jammu, how the economy is being messed up with very few jobs being created, how Congress party played with the people of India and is largely responsible for the poverty in the country. He made an important point and said, Congress first put us in this precarious situation on all the fronts – economically, politically.

On the most important issue in the current context in AP, Modi spoke like a statesman, appealed all the people to be like brother and not fight based on regions. He said – division of a state should be done in a way that makes people from both the regions happy – like the way it happened during NDA regime when Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand states were formed by creating an amicable situation between both the regions. He wished that, both Telangana and Andhra states once formed should develop more than Gujarat, the state of Seemandha should get a capital that is better than Hyderabad itself.

Modi said, only development can solve the problems faced by all the sections of the society – setting the agenda for 2014 elections campaign. Every line Modi spoke was greeted by all the sections with rapturous responses. He invoked N.T.R and made it a point to mention how he made the Telugu people pride and how nationally, he has been responsible for setting the anti-congress agenda. Appealed to TDP to continue with the agenda making overtures to them that they should support the NDA govt. after 2014 elections.   He has also invoked Jayalalita’s name and told the state govt to learn from her on skill development.

The speech went on for 40 minutes, it ended with Modi making people chant ‘Yes we can’, ‘Yes we will’ – the stadium went berserk with these slogans. Then there was a masterstroke which to be honest took us by surprise when he made us chant ‘Jai Telangana’ , ‘Jai Seemandhra’ simultaneously. Telangana people were happy, Andhra people were happy – it was a truly unifying message. After we finished – I must admit that there was a feeling of incompleteness, but after a while, we have realised that our expectations were so high that anything Modi delivered would have looked like ‘not enough’.

nmh3

Afterthought:

After Modi finished, we started walking back to leave the stadium, feeling inspired, feeling passionate , thinking that here is the guy who could lead us forward into the path of prosperity. You have to see it to believe it..!!, I have attended several political rallies, have seen Biryani rallies, but I have never seen something like this – I have only read about post emergency rallies, and was too young during the Ram Janmabhoomi movement to feel the feeling. But this was on a totally different pedestal altogether. Such was the positive energy generated; I didn’t feel like replying to the usual suspects who keep ranting every time Modi speaks. We can ignore them because they seem to so much out of touch with on the ground reality. I have always thought of it correct and now totally convinced that there is a massive wave in support of Modi and its for all of us to do whatever we can to convert it into votes. Missions 272+ has arrived and in a big way !!.

 

__._,_.___