We are not Responsible


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We are not responsible!
EQUITYMASTER HOMEPAGE 24th Aug 2013
The UPA Government has earned itself the dubious distinction of involvement in several large corruption scandals. Each time various Government functionaries absolve themselves of all responsibility. Perhaps it should admit being anirresponsible Government, which it is. 
The latest is the scam at the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL). When a group of investors, with an aggregateRs 5,500 crores stuck in the exchange, complained to Arvind Mayaram in the Ministry of Finance, the expected answer was that his Ministry was not responsible. It was the Ministry of Consumer Affairs that was, under whose jurisdiction the regulator, Forward Markets Commission (FMC) was supposed to be responsible for regulating the exchange. But FMC Chairman claims he is not responsible, as he was appointed regulator but without power! The question, raised by these columns earlier, and unanswered is, who permitted the NSEL to start operations, without first authorising a regulator to regulate its operations?
Imagine the chaos that would ensue if each regulator took a similar stance. 
What if the RBI shirked responsibility of a banking fraud and claimed it was not responsible? What if SEBI maintained that it was powerless against a company who, e.g. had raised money through an IPO and misused it? Is it any wonder, then, that individuals repose their faith in gold and not in paper assets? If the Government is genuine, it has to protect investors, else it will incur their wrath prior to a general election. 
Echoing the sentiment, the 
NSEL says it is not responsible. The top management has been sacked, which is a gesture by the promoters of the Exchange to shirk responsibility for the actions of a management they appointed.
Let’s look at other examples of shirking of responsibility.
The Finance Minister says that 
it is not responsible for the state of the economy, which is in dire straits. It is not responsible for the high fiscal deficit or for the unsustainably high current account deficit. For the latter, it is the citizen, with his penchant for gold, explained above, who is responsible! For the poor GDP growth it is the companies who are responsible, for going slow on investment, and not the Government, which has blocked several permissions required for the investment. The National Highways Authority of India has had to cancel 6 road projects because of not being able to get land acquisition clearance. But, of course, the Government is never responsible.
Consider the depreciating rupee. In 1947, when India became independent, the Rupee was equal to the US $. It is now Rs 65/$. So in 66 years, the currency has depreciated 65 times. The value of the currency is related to productivity of the country. This means that India has, since independence, sharply declined in productivity. The Congress partyhas been in power for over 75% of the time during these 65 years. But, of course, it is not responsible! 
The falling rupee will, obviously, lead to inflation. Crude oil, as well as gas, translated to INR, would be more expensive. This would mean that all petro products, petrol, diesel, LPG, kerosene, would cost more, and so will power from gas based plants. So the subsidies on the petro products and power will shoot up, and, in a bid to contain them, the Government will raise prices, with the velvet glove admonition to kindly bear with us‘. Corporate profits will be hit by the hike in costs, combined with the higher interest rates which are the consequence of a badly managed economy. Of course, the Government is not responsible. 
This is a 
criminal misallocation of resources. The national productivity rises when children are given a proper education and training and when laws and regulation are conducive to economic acitivity and growth. Not when subsidies are given for people to drive cars in. Annual sale of cars is under 4 m., or 0.08% of our population. The Government subsidises them instead of spending money on better education.
Only a few countries are teaching their children how to think. These include Finland, Poland, Japan, South Korea and Canada, who consistently score high on the PISA test. India scores poorly. Children become smart, and, later, productive, when they are challenged to think for themselves. In India the Government has cleared the way for all to be promoted. This does not challenge them to think. They are not as productive as they can be. 
Without productivity, the nation slips.The currency weakens. Other countries race ahead. But the Government is not responsible. 
So tyrannical are the rules and laws in India, and so subjective, that 
we destroy our own industries and encourage the brightest to go abroad. 
The sugar industry, one of the most controlled industries, is being killed. Prices for sugar cane are fixed by both the Centre and the States, both competing with each other to increase prices, never mind the viability of the sugar factories. They set high prices to get farmer votes; the cost is borne by the mills. The mills are going bankrupt. 
Bad politics drives away good economics. But the Governments are not responsible
Another example is that of iron ore exports. These were banned after cases of illegal iron ore mining (corruption, again, in various states like Karnataka and AP) were discovered. It is easy to ban, or destroy. It is not easy to rebuild. 
The drop in iron ore exports is a contributory factor to the Current Account Deficit. It has led to a loss of jobs. And to a fall in production of steel. Is anybody reviewing the export ban? Or is nobody responsible?
Well, companies like Tata Steel have, in partnership with a Canadian company, set up an iron ore project in Canada, and has already got permission. (South Korean Posco, after an 8 year wait in Odisha, has not). If a large FDI proposal such as Posco comes in it eases pressure on the rupee. But there is no thinking in Government. As this article in the Economist points out, economic activity is being shifted out of India.
America is anticipating an economic boom, predicated largely on a boom in output of shale gas, using a technology called hydraulic fracking. Now it is not the availability of technology that is preventing the search for shale gas in India. Technologies can be bought, or obtained, or developed. Rather, it is ownership rights. In the US, the land owner has the right to everything on, or under, his land. In India it is the Government. As a result, the prospectors for oil and gas, can deal with land owners and sign contracts for exploiting the gas below their lands. And finds a lot of it, lowering gas prices and incentivising producers of energy dependent steel, fertilisers, metals, etc, to relocate to the US and create jobs and growth.
In India, the Government claims right to any resource under the ground of property belonging to any individual. It auctions the right to hunt for oil/gas, creates a huge mess in the pricing of it. Production drops and prices rise. 
The fall in production leads to higher imports, a higher current account deficit and a falling currencySo, what is important to the Government? Is it the ownership of resources under individual land or is it the possibility of larger oil/gas finds and an easing of economic problems? A responsible Government would know the right answer. There is something strange happening in the gold market, as per this blog. Export of gold from London (where it is not mined, but, rather, held as a backing for gold ETFs) has zoomed, to Switzerland. In 2012 exports were a mere 92 tonnes. In the first half of 2013 it is 797 tonnes. It appears that this gold is being melted to smaller sizes for export to Asia. Presumably most of it is smuggled into Indiaas import duties have been myopically hiked. There is another interesting article titled ‘Hawala Logic’ by Anand Ranganathan, which points to the sharp fall in the rupee versus the US $ in the months preceeding a general election, presumable to fetch more rupees when the $s stashed abroad are brought back. The only exception was when the BJP was in power in 2004 and the rupee appreciated.
It is possible that the Government may announce another amnesty scheme, in which those with funds stashed in Swiss banks and other offshore centres (which the Supreme Court is insisting on taking action agains) can be brought back with a smallish penalty. 
The fall in the rupee more than pays for the penaltyThen the Government will take credit for the strengthening of the rupee. The stockmarket, where the money will be invested after the recent fall, could bounce back, and everyone will sing happy days are here again. This is just a hypothesis.
Last week the BSE-Sensex lost 79 points to close at 18,519, and the NSE-Nifty dropped 36 to end at 5,471.
International factors are ominous. As per this blog ‘What Happened in 1987’ the current rally since 2012 in US markets isdriven entirely by valuations, and not by earnings. The US Fed is likely to taper off its bond buying programme from September, and is to have a new boss who may be more hawkish. On the flip side, should PC come out with a disclosure scheme that would lead to funds stashed abroad coming back, it could lead to a rally. If not for that, the economy, the currency and the stockmarket would continue to slide. Of course, the Government is not responsible.

Comments on this edition of Straight From The Hip: Post a comment! | Read comments
J Mulraj is a stockmarket columnist and observer of long standing. His weekly column on stockmarkets has run for over 25 years. An MBA from IIM Calcutta, he has been a member of the BSE. He is now India Representative for Institutional Investor. A keen observer of events and trends, he writes in a lucid yet readable style and takes up issues on behalf of the individual investor. Nothing pleases him more than a reader who confesses having no interest in stockmarkets yet being a reader of his columns. His other interests include reading, both fiction and non fiction, bridge, snooker and chess.


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We are not Responsible


 

 

We are not responsible!

EQUITYMASTER HOMEPAGE 24th Aug 2013

The UPA Government has earned itself the dubious distinction of involvement in several large corruption scandals. Each time various Government functionaries absolve themselves of all responsibility. Perhaps it should admit being anirresponsible Government, which it is. 

The latest is the scam at the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL). When a group of investors, with an aggregateRs 5,500 crores stuck in the exchange, complained to Arvind Mayaram in the Ministry of Finance, the expected answer was that his Ministry was not responsible. It was the Ministry of Consumer Affairs that was, under whose jurisdiction the regulator, Forward Markets Commission (FMC) was supposed to be responsible for regulating the exchange. But FMC Chairman claims he is not responsible, as he was appointed regulator but without power! The question, raised by these columns earlier, and unanswered is, who permitted the NSEL to start operations, without first authorising a regulator to regulate its operations?
Imagine the chaos that would ensue if each regulator took a similar stance. 
What if the RBI shirked responsibility of a banking fraud and claimed it was not responsible? What if SEBI maintained that it was powerless against a company who, e.g. had raised money through an IPO and misused it? Is it any wonder, then, that individuals repose their faith in gold and not in paper assets? If the Government is genuine, it has to protect investors, else it will incur their wrath prior to a general election. 
Echoing the sentiment, the 
NSEL says it is not responsible. The top management has been sacked, which is a gesture by the promoters of the Exchange to shirk responsibility for the actions of a management they appointed.
Let’s look at other examples of shirking of responsibility.
The Finance Minister says that 
it is not responsible for the state of the economy, which is in dire straits. It is not responsible for the high fiscal deficit or for the unsustainably high current account deficit. For the latter, it is the citizen, with his penchant for gold, explained above, who is responsible! For the poor GDP growth it is the companies who are responsible, for going slow on investment, and not the Government, which has blocked several permissions required for the investment. The National Highways Authority of India has had to cancel 6 road projects because of not being able to get land acquisition clearance. But, of course, the Government is never responsible.

Consider the depreciating rupee. In 1947, when India became independent, the Rupee was equal to the US $. It is now Rs 65/$. So in 66 years, the currency has depreciated 65 times. The value of the currency is related to productivity of the country. This means that India has, since independence, sharply declined in productivity. The Congress partyhas been in power for over 75% of the time during these 65 years. But, of course, it is not responsible! 

The falling rupee will, obviously, lead to inflation. Crude oil, as well as gas, translated to INR, would be more expensive. This would mean that all petro products, petrol, diesel, LPG, kerosene, would cost more, and so will power from gas based plants. So the subsidies on the petro products and power will shoot up, and, in a bid to contain them, the Government will raise prices, with the velvet glove admonition to ‘kindly bear with us’. Corporate profits will be hit by the hike in costs, combined with the higher interest rates which are the consequence of a badly managed economy. Of course, the Government is not responsible. 
This is a 
criminal misallocation of resources. The national productivity rises when children are given a proper education and training and when laws and regulation are conducive to economic acitivity and growth. Not when subsidies are given for people to drive cars in. Annual sale of cars is under 4 m., or 0.08% of our population. The Government subsidises them instead of spending money on better education.
Only a few countries are teaching their children how to think. These include Finland, Poland, Japan, South Korea and Canada, who consistently score high on the PISA test. India scores poorly. Children become smart, and, later, productive, when they are challenged to think for themselves. In India the Government has cleared the way for all to be promoted. This does not challenge them to think. They are not as productive as they can be. 
Without productivity, the nation slips.The currency weakens. Other countries race ahead. But the Government is not responsible. 
So tyrannical are the rules and laws in India, and so subjective, that 
we destroy our own industries and encourage the brightest to go abroad. 
The sugar industry, one of the most controlled industries, is being killed. Prices for sugar cane are fixed by both the Centre and the States, both competing with each other to increase prices, never mind the viability of the sugar factories. They set high prices to get farmer votes; the cost is borne by the mills. The mills are going bankrupt. 
Bad politics drives away good economics. But the Governments are not responsible. 
Another example is that of iron ore exports. These were banned after cases of illegal iron ore mining (corruption, again, in various states like Karnataka and AP) were discovered. It is easy to ban, or destroy. It is not easy to rebuild. 
The drop in iron ore exports is a contributory factor to the Current Account Deficit. It has led to a loss of jobs. And to a fall in production of steel. Is anybody reviewing the export ban? Or is nobody responsible?
Well, companies like Tata Steel have, in partnership with a Canadian company, set up an iron ore project in Canada, and has already got permission. (South Korean Posco, after an 8 year wait in Odisha, has not). If a large FDI proposal such as Posco comes in it eases pressure on the rupee. But there is no thinking in Government. As this article in the Economist points out, economic activity is being shifted out of India.
America is anticipating an economic boom, predicated largely on a boom in output of shale gas, using a technology called hydraulic fracking. Now it is not the availability of technology that is preventing the search for shale gas in India. Technologies can be bought, or obtained, or developed. Rather, it is ownership rights. In the US, the land owner has the right to everything on, or under, his land. In India it is the Government. As a result, the prospectors for oil and gas, can deal with land owners and sign contracts for exploiting the gas below their lands. And finds a lot of it, lowering gas prices and incentivizing producers of energy dependent steel, fertilisers, metals, etc, to relocate to the US and create jobs and growth.
In India, the Government claims right to any resource under the ground of property belonging to any individual. It auctions the right to hunt for oil/gas, creates a huge mess in the pricing of it. Production drops and prices rise. 
The fall in production leads to higher imports, a higher current account deficit and a falling currency.
So, what is important to the Government? Is it the ownership of resources under individual land or is it the possibility of larger oil/gas finds and an easing of economic problems? A responsible Government would know the right answer.
There is something strange happening in the gold market, as per this blog. Export of gold from London (where it is not mined, but, rather, held as a backing for gold ETFs) has zoomed, to Switzerland. In 2012 exports were a mere 92 tonnes. In the first half of 2013 it is 797 tonnes. It appears that this gold is being melted to smaller sizes for export to Asia. Presumably most of it is smuggled into India, as import duties have been myopically hiked.
There is another interesting article titled ‘Hawala Logic’ by Anand Ranganathan, which points to the sharp fall in the rupee versus the US $ in the months preceding a general election, presumable to fetch more rupees when the $s stashed abroad are brought back. The only exception was when the BJP was in power in 2004 and the rupee appreciated.
It is possible that the Government may announce another amnesty scheme, in which those with funds stashed in Swiss banks and other offshore centres (which the Supreme Court is insisting on taking action against) can be brought back with a smallish penalty. 
The fall in the rupee more than pays for the penalty. Then the Government will take credit for the strengthening of the rupee. The stock market, where the money will be invested after the recent fall, could bounce back, and everyone will sing happy days are here again. This is just a hypothesis.
Last week the BSE-Sensex lost 79 points to close at 18,519, and the NSE-Nifty dropped 36 to end at 5,471.
International factors are ominous. As per this blog ‘What Happened in 1987’ the current rally since 2012 in US markets is driven entirely by valuations, and not by earnings. The US Fed is likely to taper off its bond buying programme from September, and is to have a new boss who may be more hawkish. On the flip side, should PC come out with a disclosure scheme that would lead to funds stashed abroad coming back, it could lead to a rally. If not for that, the economy, the currency and the stock market would continue to slide. Of course, the Government is not responsible.

Comments on this edition of Straight From The Hip: Post a comment! | Read comments

J Mulraj is a stock market columnist and observer of long-standing. His weekly column on stock markets has run for over 25 years. An MBA from IIM Calcutta, he has been a member of the BSE. He is now India Representative for Institutional Investor. A keen observer of events and trends, he writes in a lucid yet readable style and takes up issues on behalf of the individual investor. Nothing pleases him more than a reader who confesses having no interest in stock markets yet being a reader of his columns. His other interests include reading, both fiction and non fiction, bridge, snooker and chess.


RESTORE FAITH IN INDIAN ECONOMY


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this article is recd from a friend and is reproduced here. I am not claiming anything but just sharing this with you all. Special attention to my reader friends who have been guiding me on this. looking forward to your comments and suggestions
A WONDERFUL STRONG-WORDED ARTICLE FROM AJIT DAYAL OF EQUITY MASTER ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE ECONOMY , AND THE CAUSE FOR IT- LOSS OF FAITH IN THE GOVERNMENT-. HE GOES ON TO SAY THAT THIS RESTORATION OF FAITH IS A MUST FOR A GOOD SOLUTION  (AS SUGGESTED BY SRI. GURUMURTHY ji )OF USING OUR ‘LATENT GOLD’ (GOLD HELD BY THE GENERAL INDIAN PUBLIC) TO PLEDGE WITH THE GOVT IN EXCHANGE FOR A GOLD BOND, BUY US DOLLAR WITH THE GOLD , TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF BOP  AND THEREBY RESTORE HEALTH OF THE ECONOMY.  A VERY GOOD THOUGHT-PROVOKING ARTICLE. 

Restore our faith, Mr. Prime Minister

FROM The Honest Truth-BY AJIT DAYAL, EQUITY MASTER.

Dear Prime Minister:

In July 1991, as the Finance Minister in the Narasimha Rao government, you gave a long interview to the Economic Times justifying on why India needed to reform from the “license raj” days to a more open economy. That interview was, in many ways, a sort of admission of failure – without you or anyone in the Congress actually saying so – of the wealth destructive policies followed by successive Congress governments particularly under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. You and your colleagues in the then Dream Team were part of the “Cream Team” which had set India back by a few decades with myopic policies and acceptance of corruption. But, as the reforms of 1991 gripped our imagination, we were willing to forgive you for those past errors, even if they were unspoken. The one statement from you in those thousands of lines of rationale for a new way forward in the Economic Times interview which stuck in my head was “Investment is an act of faith”. The reforms of 1991 unleashed a huge outpouring of “faith” in you and in your party to lead us forward. 

Much has happened since July 1991.
From the great India Shining stories of your rivals in the BJP, to the Resurgent India and Incredible India battle cries of your own party, to the innumerable scams that have plagued India at the district, municipal, state, and federal level of government – across party lines.

India has grown from being a closed economy to one where its citizens can travel anywhere in the world and undertake an enterprise anywhere in the world.

The world, itself, has changed a lot and the monetary systems in the more open global financial markets have shown the immoral connectivity between big government and big financial firms.

Your personal life has changed, too: you have found yourself in the seat of the Prime Minister of two consecutive governments. In a seat of leadership. In a position to convert the faith we had in you – an apolitical and intelligent person – into dreams of a better India.

And, yet, as your handling of various scams and episodes over the past decade have shown you have fumbled and remained silent. You have taken the unabashed faith we had in you and converted it into a cynical distrust of you and your senior colleagues in the Administration. From being a symbol of honesty you are now seen as an 

incompetent and, possibly, dishonest man. It is 
possible that you may not have made any personal 
money in all the incidents of grand theft. However, 
an honest man retains his honesty not by being a 
silent spectator to a theft but, rather, by actively 
trying to catch the thieves he has witnessed perform
a theft. So far we have seen you look the other way and not use the full power of the government machinery to bring the suspects to justice. In fact, to add insult to our intelligence, we see your cabinet colleagues tossing counter-allegations on the talk shows that thrive on this absurd situation. Under your leadership, the movement by Anna Hazare to cleanse the corruption in India (a movement of the kind that Mahatma Gandhi, whose endorsement of Nehru gave the Congress Party its power, would be proud of) was converted into a convoluted discussion on irrelevant subtleties. 

The harshest proof that any leader can have is when a nation’s people no longer believe in their own currency. Having being the Governor of the respected Reserve Bank of India you will understand this. As a dream merchant, living off our faith, the key monetary indicators of your success (or failure) should be:

  1. Are Indians investing in IPOs and in the stock markets – an IPO is a great indicator of faith in the future and, at its extreme, borders on insanity; politely called “irrational exuberance” this unabashed faith in the ability to create something in the future out of nothing;
  2. Are Indians burying their cash in mattresses or putting it in safe bank deposits – if Indians are stashing their cash, it means they have no faith in the future and they are scared; their fear of “risk” is because their past experience has shown that they get no rewards for the risk they have taken. In fact, they have probably been slaughtered. Their rational reaction: have no faith and stay safe in bank deposits;
  3. Are Indians buying gold – a global currency – or the currency of our own nation, the Indian Rupee? Here, I will give you the benefit of a partial doubt. People buy gold either because they have no faith in their own currency or no faith in the world. The reason why Indians are buying gold is, therefore, difficult to pinpoint as a loss of faith only in you, your leadership, and your government. The hijacking of the global financial system and the ownership of policies of many central banks by a few large financial firms has resulted in a desire to own something besides a “fiat” or paper currency: gold and silver are seen as these alternatives. As an Indian, I am sure you have bought some gold for your family. As the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, you must have been party to discussions and decisions on keeping gold as part of the RBI’s global reserve currencies. So, you know that gold is not just a “useless metal”, as branded by your Finance Minister.
The timing of this letter to you – when the Indian Rupee is taking a whack – is part of the delusional process of governments. Governments listen when hit by crises – they rarely plan.

Of the 3 indicators above, the data on the first two points (a dead IPO market and a surge in bank deposits) were apparent for any student of economics and finance looking for the first signs of trouble. For the first signs of a deflation of your historic “Investment is an act of faith” statement made in 1991. 
But your cabinet colleagues, your spokespersons on media, and the various “yes-men” in important positions of the administration were probably too busy trying to figure out the next “personal cash-extraction” scheme or “quick fix” to pretend all is fine in your kingdom. 

As long as the suited bankers of Wall Street firms kept the moolah flowing in for various equity portfolio products, bond funds, and infrastructure funds – and as long as the invites to speak at Davos and other hallowed destinations were alive – the local “lack of faith” indicators were ignored. Elections may be held in India, but lucrative post-retirement jobs are a function of visibility at these global conferences. After all, what can the poor Indian voter do? Even though the Supreme Court has recently ruled that a convicted person cannot stand for election, your party – along with the other political parties – is already finding ways to fight this absurd birth right that politicians seem to have to rape and plunder at will – and be elected to do it again. So, ignore the locals and let the foreigners cuddle you and make you feel good about India.

Well, the foreign financial firms are, well, foreign with (rightfully) no loyalty to any country. They need to earn their next commission. They earned commissions from making their clients “buy India”, now they will earn it from making their clients “sell India”. Don’t count on an invitation to be a key speaker at the next Davos. Discard your delusions. And now find a way to win back the “faith”. 

With an annual savings pool of about USD 400 billion (at today’s whacked rate of the Indian Rupee) and a gold hoard of an estimated USD 1 trillion sunk somewhere in the mattresses of most Indian homes, there is no shortage of money to get India back to its Resurgent or Shining days. 

Yes, we will shed the useless metal and we will be happy to take risks again and fund the dream merchants who launch IPOs.

If you launch a “gold-for-gold” or “gold for INR equivalent of future gold price” Gold Bond scheme with a 6.5% per annum interest as your government did in November 1962 (and collected 16.3 tonnes of gold, valued at Rs 5 crore today), just after India lost a war with China, it will fail.  In 1962 patriotism ran high and faith in the Congress government and politicians was at a peak. Today, patriotism is still strong – which is why any gold-for-gold scheme will fail: Indians love their country too much to entrust their hard earned wealth to a bunch of questionable, low-character hoodlums who hold positions of power. 

But, using the latent gold to actively drive the future growth of India – and stop this slide in the INR and loss of faith in India – is important.

So, when your Finance Minister comes to you to 

sign off on a “gold-for-gold” scheme like the one 
you had in November 1962, March 1965, and October 
1965 which he is probably designing as I write, tell 
him this: 

“Our citizens have lost the faith in us. We need to win it back. And we will do so by impounding the passports of every legislator and every political party officer and their extended family. Furthermore, we will impound the wealth of every legislator and their extended family and keep all these assets as collateral in this new gold-for-gold scheme. Their passports and their wealth will only be released when we have made good on our promise to the Indian citizen to return all their gold by the year 2020. And if we fail to return the gold, the assets of the legislators held in custody will be disposed off and – given that the average legislator has a lot of wealth – we will always have sizeable collateral to pay off the obligations to the Indian citizens. Only under such an act of faith from our side will the Indian citizen come forward to deposit their latent gold for us to convert it into USD, then sell that USD and buy INR to stem the slide of the INR.

Oh, yes, that Anna fellow: tell him we have placed the CBI under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and they are free to work as they see fit to root out corruption. Furthermore, here is a list of investment banks and scoundrels who have duped investors in questionable IPOs – make sure they are blacklisted from any future IPO. And add their names to the list of people whose passports and wealth is being impounded. And, finally, tell the organisers at Davos that our passports are impounded so we will restrict our travel to Indian villages. And, no, we will not eat food at a villager’s home to prove we qualify to be a Prime Minister.”

So, Mr. Prime Minister, if you still stand by your statement that “investment is an act of faith”, win back the faith and India will respond with the investment.

Otherwise, pray hard that your next visit to Washington, D.C. does not end up as an “Indian Super Power with a begging bowl in hand” cartoon in the western press.

 

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Restore our faith, Mr. Prime Minister


this article is recd from a friend and is reproduced here. I am not claiming anything but just sharing this with you all. Special attention to my reader friends who have been guiding me on this. looking forward to your comments and suggestions

A WONDERFUL STRONG-WORDED ARTICLE FROM AJIT DAYAL OF EQUITY MASTER ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE ECONOMY , AND THE CAUSE FOR IT- LOSS OF FAITH IN THE GOVERNMENT-. HE GOES ON TO SAY THAT THIS RESTORATION OF FAITH IS A MUST FOR A GOOD SOLUTION  (AS SUGGESTED BY SRI. GURUMURTHY ji )OF USING OUR ‘LATENT GOLD’ (GOLD HELD BY THE GENERAL INDIAN PUBLIC) TO PLEDGE WITH THE GOVT IN EXCHANGE FOR A GOLD BOND, BUY US DOLLAR WITH THE GOLD , TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF BOP  AND THEREBY RESTORE HEALTH OF THE ECONOMY.  A VERY GOOD THOUGHT-PROVOKING ARTICLE. 

Restore our faith, Mr. Prime Minister

FROM The Honest Truth-BY AJIT DAYAL, EQUITY MASTER.

Dear Prime Minister:

In July 1991, as the Finance Minister in the Narasimha Rao government, you gave a long interview to the Economic Times justifying on why India needed to reform from the “license raj” days to a more open economy. That interview was, in many ways, a sort of admission of failure – without you or anyone in the Congress actually saying so – of the wealth destructive policies followed by successive Congress governments particularly under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. You and your colleagues in the then Dream Team were part of the “Cream Team” which had set India back by a few decades with myopic policies and acceptance of corruption. But, as the reforms of 1991 gripped our imagination, we were willing to forgive you for those past errors, even if they were unspoken. The one statement from you in those thousands of lines of rationale for a new way forward in the Economic Times interview which stuck in my head was “Investment is an act of faith”. The reforms of 1991 unleashed a huge outpouring of “faith” in you and in your party to lead us forward. 

Much has happened since July 1991.
From the great India Shining stories of your rivals in the BJP, to the Resurgent India and Incredible India battle cries of your own party, to the innumerable scams that have plagued India at the district, municipal, state, and federal level of government – across party lines.

India has grown from being a closed economy to one where its citizens can travel anywhere in the world and undertake an enterprise anywhere in the world.

The world, itself, has changed a lot and the monetary systems in the more open global financial markets have shown the immoral connectivity between big government and big financial firms.

Your personal life has changed, too: you have found yourself in the seat of the Prime Minister of two consecutive governments. In a seat of leadership. In a position to convert the faith we had in you – an apolitical and intelligent person – into dreams of a better India.

And, yet, as your handling of various scams and episodes over the past decade have shown you have fumbled and remained silent. You have taken the unabashed faith we had in you and converted it into a cynical distrust of you and your senior colleagues in the Administration. From being a symbol of honesty you are now seen as an

incompetent and, possibly, dishonest man. It is
possible that you may not have made any personal
money in all the incidents of grand theft. However,
an honest man retains his honesty not by being a
silent spectator to a theft but, rather, by actively
trying to catch the thieves he has witnessed perform
a theft. So far we have seen you look the other way and not use the full power of the government machinery to bring the suspects to justice. In fact, to add insult to our intelligence, we see your cabinet colleagues tossing counter-allegations on the talk shows that thrive on this absurd situation. Under your leadership, the movement by Anna Hazare to cleanse the corruption in India (a movement of the kind that Mahatma Gandhi, whose endorsement of Nehru gave the Congress Party its power, would be proud of) was converted into a convoluted discussion on irrelevant subtleties. 

The harshest proof that any leader can have is when a nation’s people no longer believe in their own currency. Having being the Governor of the respected Reserve Bank of India you will understand this. As a dream merchant, living off our faith, the key monetary indicators of your success (or failure) should be:

  1. Are Indians investing in IPOs and in the stock markets – an IPO is a great indicator of faith in the future and, at its extreme, borders on insanity; politely called “irrational exuberance” this unabashed faith in the ability to create something in the future out of nothing;
  2. Are Indians burying their cash in mattresses or putting it in safe bank deposits – if Indians are stashing their cash, it means they have no faith in the future and they are scared; their fear of “risk” is because their past experience has shown that they get no rewards for the risk they have taken. In fact, they have probably been slaughtered. Their rational reaction: have no faith and stay safe in bank deposits;
  3. Are Indians buying gold – a global currency – or the currency of our own nation, the Indian Rupee? Here, I will give you the benefit of a partial doubt. People buy gold either because they have no faith in their own currency or no faith in the world. The reason why Indians are buying gold is, therefore, difficult to pinpoint as a loss of faith only in you, your leadership, and your government. The hijacking of the global financial system and the ownership of policies of many central banks by a few large financial firms has resulted in a desire to own something besides a “fiat” or paper currency: gold and silver are seen as these alternatives. As an Indian, I am sure you have bought some gold for your family. As the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, you must have been party to discussions and decisions on keeping gold as part of the RBI’s global reserve currencies. So, you know that gold is not just a “useless metal”, as branded by your Finance Minister.
The timing of this letter to you – when the Indian Rupee is taking a whack – is part of the delusional process of governments. Governments listen when hit by crises – they rarely plan.

Of the 3 indicators above, the data on the first two points (a dead IPO market and a surge in bank deposits) were apparent for any student of economics and finance looking for the first signs of trouble. For the first signs of a deflation of your historic “Investment is an act of faith” statement made in 1991. 

But your cabinet colleagues, your spokespersons on media, and the various “yes-men” in important positions of the administration were probably too busy trying to figure out the next “personal cash-extraction” scheme or “quick fix” to pretend all is fine in your kingdom. 

As long as the suited bankers of Wall Street firms kept the moolah flowing in for various equity portfolio products, bond funds, and infrastructure funds – and as long as the invites to speak at Davos and other hallowed destinations were alive – the local “lack of faith” indicators were ignored. Elections may be held in India, but lucrative post-retirement jobs are a function of visibility at these global conferences. After all, what can the poor Indian voter do? Even though the Supreme Court has recently ruled that a convicted person cannot stand for election, your party – along with the other political parties – is already finding ways to fight this absurd birth right that politicians seem to have to rape and plunder at will – and be elected to do it again. So, ignore the locals and let the foreigners cuddle you and make you feel good about India.

Well, the foreign financial firms are, well, foreign with (rightfully) no loyalty to any country. They need to earn their next commission. They earned commissions from making their clients “buy India”, now they will earn it from making their clients “sell India”. Don’t count on an invitation to be a key speaker at the next Davos. Discard your delusions. And now find a way to win back the “faith”. 

With an annual savings pool of about USD 400 billion (at today’s whacked rate of the Indian Rupee) and a gold hoard of an estimated USD 1 trillion sunk somewhere in the mattresses of most Indian homes, there is no shortage of money to get India back to its Resurgent or Shining days. 

Yes, we will shed the useless metal and we will be happy to take risks again and fund the dream merchants who launch IPOs.

If you launch a “gold-for-gold” or “gold for INR equivalent of future gold price” Gold Bond scheme with a 6.5% per annum interest as your government did in November 1962 (and collected 16.3 tonnes of gold, valued at Rs 5 crore today), just after India lost a war with China, it will fail.  In 1962 patriotism ran high and faith in the Congress government and politicians was at a peak. Today, patriotism is still strong – which is why any gold-for-gold scheme will fail: Indians love their country too much to entrust their hard earned wealth to a bunch of questionable, low-character hoodlums who hold positions of power. 

But, using the latent gold to actively drive the future growth of India – and stop this slide in the INR and loss of faith in India – is important.

So, when your Finance Minister comes to you to

sign off on a “gold-for-gold” scheme like the one
you had in November 1962, March 1965, and October
1965 which he is probably designing as I write, tell
him this: 

“Our citizens have lost the faith in us. We need to win it back. And we will do so by impounding the passports of every legislator and every political party officer and their extended family. Furthermore, we will impound the wealth of every legislator and their extended family and keep all these assets as collateral in this new gold-for-gold scheme. Their passports and their wealth will only be released when we have made good on our promise to the Indian citizen to return all their gold by the year 2020. And if we fail to return the gold, the assets of the legislators held in custody will be disposed off and – given that the average legislator has a lot of wealth – we will always have sizeable collateral to pay off the obligations to the Indian citizens. Only under such an act of faith from our side will the Indian citizen come forward to deposit their latent gold for us to convert it into USD, then sell that USD and buy INR to stem the slide of the INR.

Oh, yes, that Anna fellow: tell him we have placed the CBI under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and they are free to work as they see fit to root out corruption. Furthermore, here is a list of investment banks and scoundrels who have duped investors in questionable IPOs – make sure they are blacklisted from any future IPO. And add their names to the list of people whose passports and wealth is being impounded. And, finally, tell the organisers at Davos that our passports are impounded so we will restrict our travel to Indian villages. And, no, we will not eat food at a villager’s home to prove we qualify to be a Prime Minister.”

So, Mr. Prime Minister, if you still stand by your statement that “investment is an act of faith”, win back the faith and India will respond with the investment.

Otherwise, pray hard that your next visit to Washington, D.C. does not end up as an “Indian Super Power with a begging bowl in hand” cartoon in the western press.

உங்களுக்கு உதவும் சட்டங்கள்!


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உங்களுக்கு உதவும் சட்டங்கள்!

எந்தெந்த பிரச்னைகளுக்கு ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்?

நாம் ஒரு பொருளை வாங்கி, அது சரியில்லாவிட்டால் ‘கன்ஸ்யூமர் கோர்ட்டு’க்குப் போகலாம்.

சொத்துத் தகராறு என்றால் ‘உரிமையியல் நீதிமன்றங்கள்’ என்கிற சிவில் கோர்ட்டுக்குப் போகலாம்.

திருட்டு, அடிதடி போன்ற குற்றங்கள் என்றால் ‘குற்றவியல் நீதிமன்றங்களை’ நாடலாம்.

இதெல்லாம் சரி… அரசாங்கம், மற்றும் அரசு சார்ந்த நிறுவனங்களுக்கு எதிராகவோ அல்லது அரசு தலையிட்டு நடத்த வேண்டிய காரியங்களுக்கோ என்ன செய்வது?

இந்த மாதிரியான பிரச்னைகளுக்கு என்றே இருக்கிறது ‘ரிட் மனு’.

அதென்ன ரிட்? ‘WRITTEN ORDER’ அதாவது எழுத்து மூலம் உத்தரவு பிறப்பிக்கச் சொல்லி, நாம் தாக்கல் செய்யும் மனுதான் ரிட்!

எந்த விதமான பிரச்னைகளுக்கெல்லாம் ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்?

பொது நலன் பாதிக்கப்படும்போது, பொது நல வழக்குகள் (Public Interest Litigation) தொடரலாம்.

உதாரணமாக உங்கள் ஏரியா ரோடு மோசமாக இருந்தால், அந்தப் பகுதியின் அதிகாரத்திற்குட்பட்ட அரசுத்துறைகளுக்கு ஒரு மனு கொடுத்தும், அவர்கள் எதுவும் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்கவில்லை என்றால், அந்தத் துறைக்கு ரோடு போட உத்தரவு போடச் சொல்லி அரசாங்கத்தைக் கேட்கலாம்.

நீங்கள் குடியிருக்கும் இடத்திற்குப் பக்கத்தில் ஒரு ஃபேக்டரியிலிருந்து புகை வந்து, அந்தப் புகை சுற்றுச் சூழலை பாதித்தால், அருகில் இருக்கும் மாசுக்கட்டுப்பாடு அலுவலகத்தில் புகார் செய்யலாம்.

அறுபது நாட்களுக்குள் அவர்கள் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்காவிட்டால் அரசாங்கத்தை நடவடிக்கை எடுக்கச் சொல்லி, ரிட் மனு தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

தற்போது பரபரப்பாக பேசப்பட்டுக் கொண்டிருக்கும் சாயப்பட்டறைகளை மூட வேண்டும் என்று ஹைகோர்ட் தீர்ப்பளித்தது கூட அந்தப் பகுதி மக்கள் ‘ரிட்’ மனு தாக்கல் செய்த பின்புதான்.

எந்தெந்த பிரச்னைகளுக்கு ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்?

ஐந்து வகைகளில் ரிட் மனுவைத் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

முதல் வகை, ‘ரிட் ஆஃப் மாண்டமஸ்’.

இதற்கு ஆணையிடும் நீதிப் பேராணை என்று பொருள்.

அதாவது, தனக்கு வரையறுக்கப்பட்ட கடமையை ஒரு அரசு அதிகாரி செய்யாவிட்டாலோ, அரசாங்கம் அல்லது அரசு சார்ந்த நிறுவனம் சட்ட விரோதமான உத்தரவைப் பிறப்பிக்கப் போகிறது என்று தெரிந்தாலோ, அந்தக் காரியத்தை செய்யாமல் தடுக்க, ஆணையிட வேண்டும் என்று ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

சாலையின் பிளாட்பார ஆக்கிரமிப்புகளை அகற்ற உத்தரவிடக்கோரி ரிட் மனுவைத் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

அடுத்தது ‘செர்ஷியோரரி (certiorari) ரிட்.’

ஒரு ஹைகோர்ட்டின் அதிகாரத்தில் உள்ள, ஒரு கோர்ட் அல்லது, தீர்ப்பு கொடுக்கும் அதிகாரமுள்ள ஒரு அரசு அதிகாரி, சட்ட விரோதமாக, ஒரு உத்தரவு போட்டால், அந்த உத்தரவை ரத்து செய்யவும், அல்லது அந்த குறிப்பிட்ட நீதி மன்றத்துக்கோ அல்லது அரசு அதிகாரிக்கோ, சரியான வழிமுறையை உணர்த்தும்படி உத்தரவிடக்கோரி கேட்பதுதான் இந்த ரிட் மனுவின் அடிப்படை.

என்ன புரியவில்லையா?

உதாரணமாக, ஒரு சினிமா தியேட்டர் கட்டுவதற்கு கலெக்டரிடம் ‘நோ அப்ஜக்ஷன்’ ஒருவர் கேட்கிறார்.

அங்கே இருபத்தைந்து அடி தூரத்தில் ஹாஸ்பிடல் இருக்கிறது.

சினிமா தியேட்டரால் ஹாஸ்பிடலுக்கு பாதிப்பு வரும், அதனால், நோ அப்ஜக்ஷன் கொடுக்கக் கூடாது என்று பொதுமக்கள் ஆட்சேபித்தும் அந்த ஆட்சேஷபணையைப் பரிசீலிக்காமல், நோ அப்ஜக்ஷனை கலெக்டர் தந்தால், அந்த உத்தரவை எதிர்த்து ‘செர்ஷியோரரி ரிட்’ மனு தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

மூன்றாவது ரிட் மனுவிற்கு ‘கோவாரண்டோ’ (Quowarranto) என்று பெயர்.

எந்த ஒரு அரசாங்க அதிகாரியாவது, தகுதி இல்லாமல், ஒரு பதவிக்கு நியமிக்கப்பட்டாலோ அல்லது தனது பதவியின் அதிகார வரம்பை மீறி அவர் உத்தரவு பிறப்பித்தாலோ, அதை எதிர்த்து ‘கோவாரண்டோ ரிட்’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

அடுத்தது பிரொகிபிஷன் (Prohibition) ரிட். அதாவது ஒரு நீதிமன்றம் தனது அதிகார வரம்பு மீறி செயல்படாதவாறு தடுப்பதற்காகப் போடப்படுவது இது.

அடுத்தது ‘ஹெபியஸ் கார்பஸ்’ (Hebeas corpus) ரிட்.

இதற்குத் தமிழில் ‘ஆள் கொணர் ஆணை’ என்று பொருள்.

நமக்குத் தெரிந்த ஒருவர் தவறாகக் காவலில் வைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தாலோ அல்லது ஒருவரைக் காணவில்லை, அவரை யாரோ கடத்தி, அடைத்து வைத்து இருக்கிறார்கள் என்று சந்தேகப்பட்டாலோ, இந்த ரிட் மனுவை நாம் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

இந்த மனுவை விசாரிக்கும் நீதிமன்றம், காவல்துறைக்கு அந்த நபரை, நீதிமன்றத்திற்கு ஆஜர்படுத்தச் சொல்லி உத்தரவிடும்.

இதில் கவனிக்க வேண்டிய முக்கியமான விஷயம், ‘ஹெபியஸ் கார்பஸ்’ மற்றும் ‘கோவாரண்டோ ரிட்’ மனுக்களை யார் வேண்டுமானாலும் போடலாம்.

ஆனால், மற்ற ரிட் மனுக்களான ‘மாண்டமாஸ்’, ‘செர்ஷியோரரி’ மற்றும் ‘ப்ரோகிபிஷன் ரிட்’ மனுக்களை பாதிக்கப்பட்ட நபர்கள்தான் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

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Ranjani Geethalaya(Regd.) (Registered under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860. Regn No S/28043 of 1995) A society for promotion of traditional values through,  Music, Dance, Art , Culture, Education and Social service. REGD OFFICE A-73 Inderpuri, New Delhi-110012, INDIA Email: ranjanigeethalaya@gmail.com  web: http://ranjanigeethalaya.webs.com (M)9868369793 all donations/contributions may be sent to Ranjani Geethalaya ( Regd) A/c no 3063000100374737, Punjab National Bank, ER 14, Inder Puri, New Delhi-110012, MICR CODE 110024135  IFSC CODE PUNB00306300

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உங்களுக்கு உதவும் சட்டங்கள்!


 

உங்களுக்கு உதவும் சட்டங்கள்! 

எந்தெந்த பிரச்னைகளுக்கு ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்?

நாம் ஒரு பொருளை வாங்கி, அது சரியில்லாவிட்டால் ‘கன்ஸ்யூமர் கோர்ட்டு’க்குப் போகலாம். 

சொத்துத் தகராறு என்றால் ‘உரிமையியல் நீதிமன்றங்கள்’ என்கிற சிவில் கோர்ட்டுக்குப் போகலாம். 

திருட்டு, அடிதடி போன்ற குற்றங்கள் என்றால் ‘குற்றவியல் நீதிமன்றங்களை’ நாடலாம். 

இதெல்லாம் சரி… அரசாங்கம், மற்றும் அரசு சார்ந்த நிறுவனங்களுக்கு எதிராகவோ அல்லது அரசு தலையிட்டு நடத்த வேண்டிய காரியங்களுக்கோ என்ன செய்வது? 

இந்த மாதிரியான பிரச்னைகளுக்கு என்றே இருக்கிறது ‘ரிட் மனு’. 

அதென்ன ரிட்? ‘WRITTEN ORDER’ அதாவது எழுத்து மூலம் உத்தரவு பிறப்பிக்கச் சொல்லி, நாம் தாக்கல் செய்யும் மனுதான் ரிட்! 

எந்த விதமான பிரச்னைகளுக்கெல்லாம் ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்? 

பொது நலன் பாதிக்கப்படும்போது, பொது நல வழக்குகள் (Public Interest Litigation) தொடரலாம். 

உதாரணமாக உங்கள் ஏரியா ரோடு மோசமாக இருந்தால், அந்தப் பகுதியின் அதிகாரத்திற்குட்பட்ட அரசுத்துறைகளுக்கு ஒரு மனு கொடுத்தும், அவர்கள் எதுவும் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்கவில்லை என்றால், அந்தத் துறைக்கு ரோடு போட உத்தரவு போடச் சொல்லி அரசாங்கத்தைக் கேட்கலாம். 

நீங்கள் குடியிருக்கும் இடத்திற்குப் பக்கத்தில் ஒரு ஃபேக்டரியிலிருந்து புகை வந்து, அந்தப் புகை சுற்றுச் சூழலை பாதித்தால், அருகில் இருக்கும் மாசுக்கட்டுப்பாடு அலுவலகத்தில் புகார் செய்யலாம். 

அறுபது நாட்களுக்குள் அவர்கள் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்காவிட்டால் அரசாங்கத்தை நடவடிக்கை எடுக்கச் சொல்லி, ரிட் மனு தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

தற்போது பரபரப்பாக பேசப்பட்டுக் கொண்டிருக்கும் சாயப்பட்டறைகளை மூட வேண்டும் என்று ஹைகோர்ட் தீர்ப்பளித்தது கூட அந்தப் பகுதி மக்கள் ‘ரிட்’ மனு தாக்கல் செய்த பின்புதான். 

எந்தெந்த பிரச்னைகளுக்கு ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்? 

ஐந்து வகைகளில் ரிட் மனுவைத் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

முதல் வகை, ‘ரிட் ஆஃப் மாண்டமஸ்’. 

இதற்கு ஆணையிடும் நீதிப் பேராணை என்று பொருள். 

அதாவது, தனக்கு வரையறுக்கப்பட்ட கடமையை ஒரு அரசு அதிகாரி செய்யாவிட்டாலோ, அரசாங்கம் அல்லது அரசு சார்ந்த நிறுவனம் சட்ட விரோதமான உத்தரவைப் பிறப்பிக்கப் போகிறது என்று தெரிந்தாலோ, அந்தக் காரியத்தை செய்யாமல் தடுக்க, ஆணையிட வேண்டும் என்று ‘ரிட் மனு’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

சாலையின் பிளாட்பார ஆக்கிரமிப்புகளை அகற்ற உத்தரவிடக்கோரி ரிட் மனுவைத் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

அடுத்தது ‘செர்ஷியோரரி (certiorari) ரிட்.’ 

ஒரு ஹைகோர்ட்டின் அதிகாரத்தில் உள்ள, ஒரு கோர்ட் அல்லது, தீர்ப்பு கொடுக்கும் அதிகாரமுள்ள ஒரு அரசு அதிகாரி, சட்ட விரோதமாக, ஒரு உத்தரவு போட்டால், அந்த உத்தரவை ரத்து செய்யவும், அல்லது அந்த குறிப்பிட்ட நீதி மன்றத்துக்கோ அல்லது அரசு அதிகாரிக்கோ, சரியான வழிமுறையை உணர்த்தும்படி உத்தரவிடக்கோரி கேட்பதுதான் இந்த ரிட் மனுவின் அடிப்படை. 

என்ன புரியவில்லையா? 

உதாரணமாக, ஒரு சினிமா தியேட்டர் கட்டுவதற்கு கலெக்டரிடம் ‘நோ அப்ஜக்ஷன்’ ஒருவர் கேட்கிறார். 

அங்கே இருபத்தைந்து அடி தூரத்தில் ஹாஸ்பிடல் இருக்கிறது. 

சினிமா தியேட்டரால் ஹாஸ்பிடலுக்கு பாதிப்பு வரும், அதனால், நோ அப்ஜக்ஷன் கொடுக்கக் கூடாது என்று பொதுமக்கள் ஆட்சேபித்தும் அந்த ஆட்சேஷபணையைப் பரிசீலிக்காமல், நோ அப்ஜக்ஷனை கலெக்டர் தந்தால், அந்த உத்தரவை எதிர்த்து ‘செர்ஷியோரரி ரிட்’ மனு தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

மூன்றாவது ரிட் மனுவிற்கு ‘கோவாரண்டோ’ (Quowarranto) என்று பெயர். 

எந்த ஒரு அரசாங்க அதிகாரியாவது, தகுதி இல்லாமல், ஒரு பதவிக்கு நியமிக்கப்பட்டாலோ அல்லது தனது பதவியின் அதிகார வரம்பை மீறி அவர் உத்தரவு பிறப்பித்தாலோ, அதை எதிர்த்து ‘கோவாரண்டோ ரிட்’ தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

அடுத்தது பிரொகிபிஷன் (Prohibition) ரிட். அதாவது ஒரு நீதிமன்றம் தனது அதிகார வரம்பு மீறி செயல்படாதவாறு தடுப்பதற்காகப் போடப்படுவது இது. 

அடுத்தது ‘ஹெபியஸ் கார்பஸ்’ (Hebeas corpus) ரிட். 

இதற்குத் தமிழில் ‘ஆள் கொணர் ஆணை’ என்று பொருள். 

நமக்குத் தெரிந்த ஒருவர் தவறாகக் காவலில் வைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தாலோ அல்லது ஒருவரைக் காணவில்லை, அவரை யாரோ கடத்தி, அடைத்து வைத்து இருக்கிறார்கள் என்று சந்தேகப்பட்டாலோ, இந்த ரிட் மனுவை நாம் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம். 

இந்த மனுவை விசாரிக்கும் நீதிமன்றம், காவல்துறைக்கு அந்த நபரை, நீதிமன்றத்திற்கு ஆஜர்படுத்தச் சொல்லி உத்தரவிடும். 

இதில் கவனிக்க வேண்டிய முக்கியமான விஷயம், ‘ஹெபியஸ் கார்பஸ்’ மற்றும் ‘கோவாரண்டோ ரிட்’ மனுக்களை யார் வேண்டுமானாலும் போடலாம். 

ஆனால், மற்ற ரிட் மனுக்களான ‘மாண்டமாஸ்’, ‘செர்ஷியோரரி’ மற்றும் ‘ப்ரோகிபிஷன் ரிட்’ மனுக்களை பாதிக்கப்பட்ட நபர்கள்தான் தாக்கல் செய்யலாம்.

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குழந்தை பிறக்கும்பொழுது அதன் உடலில் 300 எலும்புகள் இருக்கும். ஆனால் வளர்ந்து பெரியவனானதும் மொத்தம் 206 எலும்புகளே இருக்கும்.

நமது உடல் எடையில் 14% எலும்புகளால் ஆனது.
நமது உடலில் உறுதியான எலும்பு தொடை எலும்பு, அது கான்கீரிட்டை விட வலிமையானது.
நமது உடல் எடையில் 7% இரத்தம் ஆகும். தினத்தோறும் 450 கேலன் இரத்தம் சிறுநீரகத்தால் சுத்தப்படுத்தப்படுகிறது.
human_body_370பெண்களுக்கு சராசரியாக 4.5 லிட்டர் இரத்தம், ஆண்களுக்கு சராசரியாக 5.6 லிட்டர் இரத்தம் இருக்கும். நமது உடலில் உள்ள இரத்த சிவப்பணுக்களின் ஆயுட்காலம் 120 நாட்கள், அதுபோல் ஒவ்வொறு நொடியில் சுமார் இரண்டு மில்லியன் இரத்த சிவப்பணுக்கள் நமது உடலில் இறக்கின்றன.
நமது உடலில் உள்ள இரத்த குழாய்களின் நீளம் சுமார் 600,000 மைல்கள். அதாவது இந்த தொலைவில் நாம் இரண்டு முறை உலகத்தை சுற்றி வந்துவிடலாம்.
நமது கண்களின் எடை சராசரியாக 28 கிராம்.
நமது கண்களுக்கு 500 விதமான ஒளிகளை பிரித்தெரியும் சக்தியுண்டு.
நமது கண்களில் உள்ள கருவிழி மட்டும் தான் இரத்த நாளம் இல்லாத உயிருள்ள திசு.
முதல் 8 வாரம் வரை குழந்தைகளின் கண்களில் கண்ணீர் வராது.
மனித இதயம் சராசரியான ஒரு வருடத்திற்கு 35 மில்லியன் முறை துடிக்கிறது.
ஒரு சராசரி வாழ்வில் இதயமானது 2.5 பில்லியன் முறை துடித்து 1 மில்லியன் பேரல் இரத்தத்தை இரத்த குழாயில் செலுத்துகிறது.
இதயத்தில் உள்ள இரத்த அழுத்தமானது, இரத்தத்தை 30 அடிவரை பீய்ச்சி அடிக்கும் சக்தி கொண்டது.
மனித மூளையில் சுமார் 100,000,000,000 (100 பில்லியன்) நரம்பு செல்கள் உள்ளன.
ஒரு மனிதன் 35 வயது அடைந்தது முதல் மூளையில் தினமும் 7000 நரம்பு செல்கள் இறக்கின்றன.
நாம் சுவாசிக்கும் மொத்த ஆக்ஸிஜனில் 20% மூளைக்கு செல்கிறது.
நமது மூளை 80% நீரால் ஆனது.
நமது மூளையின் செயல்திறன் பகலைவிட இரவில் அதிகமாக இருக்கும்.
நமது உடலில் வேகமாக வளரக்கூடிய திசு முடிதான்.
மனித தலையில் சராசரியாக 100,000 தலைமுடிகள் இருக்கும்.
பெண்கள் கருத்தரிக்கும் பொழுது, கர்ப்பப்பையானது, அதன் சாதாரண நிலையை விட 500 முறை விரிவடைகிறது.
மனித உடலில் உள்ள கல்லீரானது 500 விதமான வேலைகளை செய்கிறது.
மனிதன் உயிரிழந்த பின்பு உறுப்புகள் செயல் இழக்கும் நேரம்
கண்கள் 31 நிமிடங்கள்

மூளை 10 நிமிடங்கள்

கால்கள் 4 மணி நேரம்

தசைகள் 5 நாட்கள்

இதயம் சில நிமிடங்கள்!

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Ranjani Geethalaya(Regd.) (Registered under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860. Regn No S/28043 of 1995) A society for promotion of traditional values through,  Music, Dance, Art , Culture, Education and Social service. REGD OFFICE A-73 Inderpuri, New Delhi-110012, INDIA Email: ranjanigeethalaya@gmail.com  web: http://ranjanigeethalaya.webs.com (M)9868369793 all donations/contributions may be sent to Ranjani Geethalaya ( Regd) A/c no 3063000100374737, Punjab National Bank, ER 14, Inder Puri, New Delhi-110012, MICR CODE 110024135  IFSC CODE PUNB00306300

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